2. jaanuar 1941

2. jaanuar 1941

2. jaanuar 1941

Jaanuar 1941

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Kuninglik merevägi ja kuninglikud õhujõud pommitasid Bardiat (alates 1. jaanuarist)



Llandaffi katedraal on rängalt kahjustatud Cardiff Blitz'i kõige hullemate Saksa pommituste ajal ja#8211 2. jaanuar 1941

Foto Llandaffi katedraali nina tõsistest kahjustustest.

Teise maailmasõja ajal oli Cardiff Docks üks maailma suurimaid söesadamaid. Linn osutus seega Suurbritannia pommitamise ajal Saksa Luftwaffe jaoks ahvatlevaks sihtmärgiks. Alates 1940. aastast ja jätkates kuni 1943. aastani pommitasid sakslased korduvalt Cardiffi Cardiff Blitzina. Kõige hullem pommitamise öö juhtus aga 2. jaanuaril 1941.

Sel saatuslikul ööl hukkus 165 inimest ja veel 427 sai vigastada. Umbes 350 kodu hävitati või tuli lammutada. Üks ikoonilisemaid hooneid, mis sel ööl kannatada sai, oli Llandaffi katedraal, mis ehitati 12. sajandil. Pommitamise ajal heideti langevarjukaevandus katedraalile piisavalt lähedale, et katus laevalt, lõuna vahekäigult ja peatükimajalt maha rebida. Katedraali torn ja orel said samuti remonti vajavaid kahjustusi.

Pilt Llandaffi katedraalist pärast selle taastamist.

Üks pealtnägija kirjeldas Llandaffi katedraali kahjustanud plahvatust sel viisil: „Kirikuaia iidsete haudade vahele puhkes tohutu kraater ja hauaplaate paisati nagu iidseid rakette rohkem kui poole miili kaugusele.” Pommitamise tõsiduse tõttu sai Llandaffi katedraal Briti katedraalide seas suuruselt teise kahju, ainult Coventry katedraal sai rohkem kahju.

Katedraali täielik restaureerimine algas 1949. aastal arhitekt George Pace'i juhtimisel. Restaureerimine viidi lõpule alles 1958. aastal, kui katedraal taasavastati.


2. jaanuar 1941 - ajalugu

Kuninglikud, domineerivad ja India merelaevad, JAANUAR 1941 (2. osa 2 -st)

(laeva kohta lisateabe saamiseks minge mereväe ajaloo kodulehele ja tippige saidiotsingusse nimi)

Mõned sõjalaevad on loetletud koos oma üksusega ja uuesti teisega eraldatuna

PÕHJA -ATLANTI KÄSK

Asepresident Sir G Frederick B Edward-Collins KCB, KCVO

Baaslaev, Gibraltar - KORORANT

Lahingulaev - RESOLUTSIOON (kapten A R Halfhide CBE) arr Gibraltar 16. detsember Freetownist.

Raske ristleja - BERWICK (kapten G L Warren) arr Gibraltar 31. dets

13. hävitaja flotilla

25. diviis - DUNCAN (kapten A D B James Actg, Lt Cdr A N Rowell alates 13. veebruar) dep Gibraltar 31. detsember, ENCOUNTER (Lt Cdr E V St J Morgan) arr Freetown 31. detsember, ISIS (Cdr C S B Swinley DSC) arr Freetown 31. detsember

26. divisjon - VIDETTE (Lt EN Walmsley) dep Gibraltar 31. detsember, VELOX (Lt Cdr EG Roper DSC) dep Gibraltar 31. detsember, WISHART (Cdr ET Cooper) arr Gibraltar 29. detsember, WRESTLER (Lt EL Jones DSC) Portsmouthis, remont 30. jaan.

8. allveelaeva flotilla - rannikuasutus PIGMY (Cdr G B H Fawkes) Gibraltaril, allveelaevad OLYMPUS (Lt Cdr H G Dymott) arr Gibraltar 29. detsember, OTUS (Lt Cdr E C F Nicolay) arr Gibraltar 4. jaanuar, PANDORA (Lt Cdr J W Linton) arr Gibraltar 14. jaan.

7. allveelaevade vastane rühm - allveelaevade vastased traalerid ARCTIC RANGER (SO, Cdr JH Young Rtd), ERIN (Actg Cdr JO Davies RNR), HAARLEM (Ty Lt LB Merrick RNVR), KINGSTON CHRYSOLITE (Ty Lt RL Green, RVR) dep 29. detsember Liverpool, LEYLAND (Lt Cdr A Wilkinson RNR), LORD HOTHAM (Sk JW Morris RNR), kõik Gibraltaril või selle lähedal

92. miinitõrjegrupp - miinitraaleritüürid CLYNE CASTLE (Lt T Fraser RNR), HONJU (Ch Sk J Bowie RNR), mõlemad Gibraltaril

Salakaubaveo teenus - relvastatud pardalaevad ACHROITE (Sk GWH Mortlock RNR), ALOUETTE (Lt Lord Churston RNVR), ANGLIA (Lt R McCready RNR), CHARLES McIVER (Lt BTR Russell RNR), VÕIMALIK (Sk CC Findlay RNR), IMPERIALIST (Pbty Ty Lt Kitto RNR), KINGSTON JACINTH (Lt Cdr A Ayre Rtd) dep 29. detsember Liverpool, KINGSTON TOPAZ (Cdr WL Smith RNR), KINGSTON TURQUOISE (Lt LA White RNR) dep 29. detsember Liverpool, LOCH OSKAIG (Lt Cdr S Darling RANR) ), LORNA (Actg Lt R Atkinson RNR), ROSABELLE (Lt HH Brown RNR), SAYONARA (Cdr H Hamilton Rtd), ŠOTI (Cdr SA Brooks OBE Rtd), TIERCEL (Lt RRL Rosoman RNR Rtd) Greenockis, muidu kõik või dep Gibraltar

Puksiirid - ST PÄEV (Lt Cdr J Sharples RNR Rtd), ST OMAR (CO loetletud), mõlemad Gibraltaril

JÕUD H

Asepresident Sir James F Somerville KCB, DSO

Lahinguristleja - RENOWN (lipp, Somerville, kapten C E B Simeon, kapten R R McGrigor alates 23. jaanuarist) arr Gibraltar

Lahingulaev - MALAYA (kapten A F E Palliser DSC) arr Gibraltar 24. dets

Lennukikandja - ARK ROYAL (kapten C S Holland) Gibraltaril kaheksa tundi ette teatades.

Kerge ristleja - SHEFFIELD (kapten C A A Larcom) arr Gibraltar 30. dets

8. hävitaja flotilla (Kapten AF de Salis) - FAULKNOR (de Salis) arr Gibraltar 30. detsember, FEARLESS (Cdr AF Pugsley) Troon, FIREDRAKE (Lt Cdr SH Norris DSO, DSC) dep Gibraltar 31. detsember, FORESIGHT (Lt Cdr GT Lambert, Cdr JSC Salter) alates 14. jaanuarist Liverpoolis, FORESTER (Lt Cdr EB Tancock DSC) arr Gibraltar 31. detsember, FORTUNE (Lt Cdr EN Sinclair) arr Gibraltar 29. detsember, FOXHOUND (Lt Cdr GH Peters DSC) dep Gibraltar 31. detsember, FURY (Lt Cdr TC Robinson) arr Gibraltar 31. dets

KESKMINE LAEVAS

Asepresident hr Andrew B Cunningham KCB, DSO saidil WARSPITE,

ülendati admiraliks 3. jaanuaril 1941

Baaslaev - NILE (tagumine Adm F Elliott OBE Rtd, Actg Rear Adm G H Creswell DSO, DSC alates 5. veebruarist)

1. lahingusalk (Rear Adm H B Rawlings OBE on BARHAM) - lahingulaevad BARHAM (kapten G C Cooke), VALIANT (kapten C E Morgan DSO) arr 24. detsember, WARSPITE (kapten D B Fisher CBE) arr 24. detsember, kõik arr või Alexandria

Lennukikandjad (Tagumine Adm A L St G Lyster CB, CVO, DSO on ILLUSTRIOUS) - EAGLE (kapten A R M Bridge CBE) Aleksandrias, ILLUSTRIOUS (kapten D W Boyd CBE, DSC) arr Alexandria 24. dets.

3. ristleja eskadron (Rear Adm R de F Renouf DSO) - raske ristleja YORK (kapten R H Portal DSC) dep Suda Bay 30. detsember, kerged ristlejad GLASGOW (kapten J W Cuthbert Actg) Aleksandrias läbivad ajutise remondi. GLOUCESTER (lipp, kapten H A Rowley) dep Suda Bay 30. dets

Seitsmes ristleja eskaader (Tagumised kergejõud, tagumine Adm HD Pridham -Wippell CB, CVO, ülendatud aseesimeheks 3. jaanuaril 1941) - kerged ristlejad AJAX (kapten EDB McCarthy) arr Suda Bay 1. jaanuar, LIVERPOOL (kapten AL Poola DSO, DSC) kl. Aleksandrias tehakse ajutist remonti, ORION (lipp, kapten GRB Tagasi) arr Alexandria 23. detsember, Austraalia PERTH (kapten Sir Philip W Bowyer-Smith Bt) arr Suda Bay 1. jaanuar, SYDNEY (kapten JA Collins CB RAN) Maltal

Kinnitatud ristleja - kergeristleja SOUTHAMPTON (kapten B C B Brooke) dep Aden 25. detsembril, arr Alexandria 30. dets.

Õhutõrjelaevad - õhutõrjeristleja CALCUTTA (kapten D M Lees DSO) dep Suda Bay 30. detsember, COVENTRY (kapten D Gilmour) Aleksandrias, kahjustatud, remont 20. jaanuar, hävitaja WRYNECK (Lt Cdr R H D Lane) arr Alexandria 23. detsember

2. hävitaja flotilla (Kapten H St L Nicolson DSO) - HASTY (Lt Cdr LRK Tyrwhitt) arr Gibraltar 24. detsember, HAVOCK (Cdr RE Courage DSO, DSC) Maltal, HEREWARD (Cdr CW Greening) dep Gibraltar 25. detsember, HERO (Cdr HW Biggs DSO ) dep Gibraltar 31. detsember, HOTSPUR (Cdr HFH Layman DSO) Maltal, ILEX (Nicolson) arr Alexandria 24. detsember, IMPERIAL (Lt Cdr CA De W Kitcat) Maltal

10. hävitaja flotilla (Kapten H M L Waller DSO)

19. divisjon - Austraalia hävitajad STUART (kapten Waller RAN) Maltal 31. dets., VAMPIRE (ajutiselt Waller STUART -i remondi ajal, Cdr JA Walsh RAN), Alexandria, 20. detsember, VENDETTA (Lt Cdr R Rhoades RAN) dep Alexandria, 23. detsember, VOYAGER (Cdr JC Morrow DSO RAN) arr Alexandria 22. detsember koos WATERHEN, WATERHEN (Lt Cdr JH Swain) arr Alexandria 1. jaanuar kahjustatud

20. divisjon - DAINTY (Cdr M S Thomas DSO) dep Alexandria 31. detsember, DECOY (Cdr E G McGregor DSO) Maltal, DEFENDER (Lt Cdr G L Farnfield) dep Suda Bay 24. detsember, DIAMOND (Lt Cdr P A Cartwright) arr Alexandria 31. detsember

14. hävitaja flotilla (Kapten P J Mack DSO)

Divisjon 27 - JANUS (Cdr JAW Tothill) arr Alexandria 24. detsember, JERVIS (Mack) arr Alexandria 30. detsember, JUNO (Cdr St JRJ Tyrwhitt) arr Alexandria 24. detsember, MOHAWK (Cdr JWM Eaton) arr Alexandria, 1. jaanuar, saatja WATERHEN, NUBIAN (Cdr RW Ravenhill) arr Alexandria 30. detsember koos MOHAWKiga

Rajoon 28 - GALLANT (Lt Cdr C P F Brown DSC) dep Port Said 31. detsember, GREYHOUND (Cdr W R Marshall A'Deane DSC) arr Alexandria 30. detsember, GRIFFIN (Lt Cdr J Lee -Barber DSO) dep Suda Bay 30. dets.

1. allveelaeva flotilla (Kapten SM Raw) - depoolaev MEDWAY (Raw) Aleksandrias, allveelaevad OSIRIS (Lt Cdr JRG Harvey) dep Alexandria 22. detsember Gibraltari jaoks, arr Malta 29. detsember, OTUS (Lt Cdr ECF Nicolay) dep Alexandria 21. detsember Gibraltar, arr Malta 29. detsember, PANDORA (Lt Cdr JW Linton) arr Alexandria 28. detsember, PARTHIAN (Cdr MG Rimington DSO) dep Malta 29. detsember, PERSEUS (Lt Cdr PJH Bartlett) Maltal, remont 18. märts, REGENT (Lt Cdr HC Browne) arr Malta 25. detsember, RORQUAL (Cdr RH Dewhurst DSO) arr Alexandria 17. detsember, ROVER (Lt Cdr HAL Marsham) arr Alexandria 22. detsember, TETRARCH (Lt Cdr RMT Peacock) dep Malta 28. detsember, TRIUMPH (Lt Cdr WJW Woods) dep Gibraltar 27. detsember, TRUANT (Lt Cdr HAV Haggard) dep Malta 28. detsember, UNIQUE (Lt AF Collett) dep Gibraltar Norman) arr Malta 24. detsember, URSULA (leitnant AJ MacKenzie) Gibraltaril, remont 16. jaanuariks, USK (Lt PR Ward) arr Gibraltar 23. detsember, UTMOST (Lt Cdr JH Eaden DSC, Lt R D Cayley on 31. jaanuar) Maltal, remont 2. veebruaril

8. jaanuaril saabus Cdr G W G Simpson Maltale, et juhtida 1. septembril 10. allveelaevalaevastikuks määratud U-klassi allveelaevu.

Korvettid - GLOXINIA (Lt Cdr A J C Pomeroy RNVR) Malta remondis, HYACINTH (Actg Lt Cdr F C Hopkins RNR), PEONY (Lt Cdr M B Sherwood DSO Rtd), SALVIA (Lt Cdr J I Miller DSO RNR), kõik, välja arvatud üks detsember Alexandria

Neljas allveelaevade vastane rühm - allveelaevade vastased traalerid BERYL (Cdr J C Bird Rtd), CORAL (Mid F H Walton RNR), JADE (Btswn J Hughes), kõik Maltal

5. allveelaevade vastane rühm - allveelaevade vastased traalerid BANDOLERO (SO, Lt Cdr FMW Harris RNR) kaotas 30. dets. Sk G Rawding RNR) Aleksandrias, VICTORIAN (Ch Sk MA Smith RNR) arr Suez 21. detsember

16. allveelaevade vastane rühm - allveelaeva vastased vaalapüüdjad KOS.19 (Lt IH Davis RNR), KOS.21 (Ty Lt Cdr IFH Wilson RNVR), KOS.22 (Lt HD Foxon RNR), KOS.23 (Lt Cdr JJ Reid RNVR), SYVERN (Lt Cdr RE Clarke RNR), kõik Durbanis, paigaldades ASDIC -d

28. allveelaevade vastane rühm - allveelaevade vastased traalerid KINGSTON CORAL (Sk W Kirman RNR) arr Alexandria 27. november Suda Bayst, KINGSTON CRYSTAL (Lt Cdr GHP James RNR) dep Alexandria 14. detsember, KINGSTON CYANITE (Sk FA Yeomans RNR) arr Alexandria 6. november, WOLBOROUG ( , Lt FAW Ramsey Rtd) dep Alexandria 20. dets

Miinilaevade flotilla - miinipildujad ABINGDON (Lt GA Simmers RNR) Maltal, BAGSHOT (Lt Cdr JFB Cage RNVR) dep Alexandria 7. detsember, DERBY (Lt FCV Brightman) arr Alexandria 19. detsember, FAREHAM (SO, Lt WJP kirik) Piraeuses, FERMOY (Lt Cdr JGD Wetherfield) Maltal, HUNTLEY (Lt Cdr HRA King RNR) kuni Alexandria 27. detsember, STOKE (Cdr CJP Hill Rtd) Aleksandrias.

91. miinitõrjegrupp - miinipildujatraalerid ARTHUR CAVANAGH (Ty Sk T W Kirby RNR), MILFORD COUNTESS (Ty Sk E W Oxborough RNR), mõlemad Aleksandrias, MUROTO (Ty Sk J Willis RNR), RAGLAN CASTLE (Sk G Buchan RNR) mõlemad Port Saidis

109. miinitõrjegrupp - miinipilduja vaalapüüdjad SKUDD III (Lt AF Harkness RNR), SKUDD IV (Ty Lt (E) T Holm RNR), SKUDD V (S/Lt RAN Cox RNR), SWONA (Lt WF Duffy RCNVR) kõik de Freetown 21. detsember Simonstowni kaudu Püha Helena

142. miinitõrjegrupp - miinipildujad vaalapüüdjad SARNA (Ty Sk W T Allen RNR), SOIKA (Ty Lt (E) L Olsen RNR), SOTRA (Actg Lt J M Davies RCNVR), SVANA (Ty Lt (E) T Olsen RNR) kõik arr Durban 22. dets.

Miinitraalerid - EMPYREAN (Pbty Ty Sk W F Salenius RNR), RETURNO (Ty Lt E R Crane RNVR), mõlemad Gibraltaril

Miinipildujad - TÜDRUK MARGARET, PLOW BOY (CO -d pole loetletud) mõlemad Maltal

Täiendavad miinipildujad - SININE TAANI (Lt Cdr N D Watts-Russell Rtd) Port Saidis, nr 1 ja nr 2 (CO-d pole loetletud), mõlemad Haifas

Püssipaadid (haldab kapten Allveelaevad, Med) - APHIS (Lt Cdr JO Campbell DSO Rtd) dep Alexandria 31. detsember Sollum, CRICKET (Lt Cdr EB Carnduff alates 11. jaanuar) Bombay, LADYBIRD (Lt Cdr JF Blackburn Rtd) dep Alexandria 31. detsember Sollumi jaoks

Allveelaevade vastased mootorpaadid - MA/SB.2 (Lt Cdr R M Prior DSC Emgcy) Aleksandrias, MA/SB.3 (Lt J C LaPage) Aleksandrias

Varustuslaev - RELIANT (meister C H Noel) Aleksandrias

Laeva remont - RESSURS (kapten D B O'Connell Rtd) Aleksandrias

Monitor - TERROR (Cdr H J Haynes DSC) dep Alexandria 22. dets

Kontrollitav miinikiht - MEDUSA (Btswn F Farmer) Maltal

Netlayer - PROTECTOR (Cdr R J Gardner) arr Alexandria 20. dets

Laevastiku sihtteenus - puksiirid MOY (Lt V G Palmer), OUSE (LR J E Grice), ST ISSEY (Lt J H W Howe RNR), kõik Aleksandrias

Triivijad - CRESCENT MOON (CO loetletud) Port Saidis, EDDY (Ch Sk J Carnie RNR) Maltal, FELLOWSHIP (Ty S/Lt S Barrie RNR) Suda Bay's, LANDFALL (Actg S/Lt MFB Williams RNVR) Port Saidis, LANNER (Sk W Stewart RNR) Suda lahel, SUNSET (Ch Sk R Cowie RNR) Maltal

Salakaubaveo teenus relvastatud pardalaevad ARPHA (Cdr FM Smith RD RNR) Port Saidis, CHAKLA (Cdr LC Bach RD RNR) dep Alexandria 21. detsember, FIONA (Lt JB Shillitoe RNR) arr Alexandria 24. detsember, ROSAURA (kapten R Spencer RD RNR) arr Suda Laht, 16. detsember, SURF (Ty Lt DC Wilson RNVR), Port Said

Puksiirid - EMILY, WEST COCKER (CO -d pole loetletud) mõlemad Maltal

Poomi kaitselaevad - BARBETTE (Ty Lt EJP Webster RNR), Colombo, 26. detsember, Port Said, BURGONET (Ty Lt CT Grantley RNR) arr Port Said, 22. detsember, MAGNET (Ty Boom Sk JW Hogarth RNR), Alexandria, WESTGATE (Ty Boom Sk A Stewart RNR) ) Maltal

Varustuslaevad - BRECONSHIRE (kapten C A G Hutchenson Rtd) arr Alexandria 23. detsember, MALTA Rüütl, arr Alexandria 22. detsember, ULSTER PRINCE (Cdr F A Bond RD RNR Rtd) dep Pireus 24. dets.

Tagumine Adm A J L Murray DSO, OBE

Depoolaev - LUCIA (lipp, Cdr C R de B L Townsend Actg, Rtd)

Kerged ristlejad - CALEDON (kapten C P Clarke) dep Aden 29. detsember, LEANDER (kapten R H Bevan) dep Bombay 27. detsember

Õhutõrje ristleja - CARLISLE (kapten G M B Langley OBE, kapten T C Hampton jaanuaris) arr Aden 29. detsember

Hävitajad (Cdr W G A Robson) - KANDAHAR (SO, Robson) arr Suez 28. detsember, KIMBERLEY (ltd Cdr J S M Richardson) arr Aden 29. detsember, KINGSTON (Lt Cdr P Somerville DSO) dep Aden 30. detsember Bombay jaoks.

Sloops - AUCKLAND (Cdr JG Hewitt DSO) dep Aden 29. detsember, FLAMINGO (Cdr JH Huntley) arr Aden 26. detsember, GRIMSBY (Cdr KJ D'Arcy) arr Suez 25. detsember, SHOREHAM (Cdr GP Claridge) dep Aden 29. detsember, Austraalia PARRAMATTA ( Lt Cdr JH Walker MVO RAN) dep Aden, 30. detsember, YARRA (Lt Cdr WH Harrington RAN), sadam Sudaan, 27. detsember, India CLIVE (Cdr HR Inigo-Jones RIN), sadam Sudaan, 27. detsember, India HINDUSTAN (Cdr IBW Heanly RIN) arr Aden 30. detsember, India INDUS (Cdr EGG Hunt RIN) dep Aden 29. dets

India allveelaevade vastased laevad - NETRAVATI (Lt G P Ranson RIN) dep.

LÕUNA -ATLANTI KÄSK

Vice Adm R H T Raikes CB, CVO, DSO

Baas- ja majutuslaev - EDINBURGH LOSS (kapten E M Palmer OBE Rtd) Freetownis

Tagumine juht W F Wake-Walker CB, OBE

Lennukikandja - VÕIMALIK (kapten A W La T Bisset) dep Scapa Flow 18. dets

Rasked ristlejad - DORSETSHIRE (kapten B C S Martin) dep Freetown 27. detsember, NORFOLK (lipp, ärkvelkäija, kapten A J L Phillips) dep Scapa Flow 18. dets.

Lennukikandja - HERMES (kapten R F J Onslow MVO, DSC) dep Freetown patrullis 3. detsembril

Kerge ristleja - DRAGON (kapten R J Shaw MBE) dep Freetown 3. detsembril patrullimise kohta.

Vesilennukikandja - ALBATROSS (Actg Capt W G Britain) Freetownis

Kinnitatud ristlejad - rasked ristlejad CORNWALL (kapten PCW Manwaring) arr Simonstown 28. detsember remontimiseks, 22. veebruar, 28. veebruar, CUMBERLAND (kapten. CHE Russell) dep Freetown 1. detsember, DEVONSHIRE (kapten RD Oliver DSC) arr Simonstown 26. detsember, ristleja HAWKINS (Kapten HPK Oram) arr Freetown 30. detsember, kerged ristlejad DELHI (kapten AS Russell) dep Lagos 23. detsember Manoca, DUNEDIN (kapten RS Lovatt) dep Gibraltar 29. detsember, ETTEVÕTLUS (kapten JC Annesley DSO) dep Montevideo 15. detsember, NEPTUNE ( Kapten RC O'Conor) dep Freetown 28. detsember, NEWCASTLE (kapten EA Aylmer DSC) dep Freetown 10. detsember

Sloops - BRIDGEWATER (Cdr H F C Leftwich Rtd) arr Freetown 28. detsember, MILFORD (kapten K K Smyth Rtd) arr Freetown

Korvettid - ASPHODEL (Lt Cdr KW Stewart Rtd) dep Freetown 29. detsember, CALENDULA (Lt Cdr AD Bruford RNVR) Freetowni remondis, CLEMATIS (Cdr YM Cleeves DSO, DSC, RD RNR), CYCLAMEN (Lt HN Lawson RNR), GERD A Foxall RNR Actg), JONQUIL (Lt Cdr REH Partington RNR), viimased neli dep Ponta Delgada 29. detsember

Relvastatud kaubaristlejad - ALCANTARA (kapten J G P Ingham DSO Rtd) Southamptoni remondis, ASTURIAS (kapten H Ardill Rtd) dep Capetown 13. detsember, BERMUDA KUNINGANNA (kapten G A B Hawkins MVO, DSC, kapten A T G C Peachey alates 1. veebruar) arr Montevideo 18. dets.

Freetown Convoy Escort Force relvastatud kaubaristlejad ARAWA (Actg Capt GR Deverell Rtd) Belfastis, remont 3. jaanuaril, BULOLO (kapten RL Hamer DSO Rtd) arr Freetown, 28. detsember, CANTON (kapten CP Frend), Freetown, CARNARVON CASTLE (kapten HNM Hardy DSO Rtd) arr Capetown 20. detsember, CATHAY (kapten C McC Merewether Rtd) dep. Freetown Sutclif Rtd.

Tasuta Prantsuse patrull -laevad - VIKINGS dep Freetown 29. detsember, Duala, VAILLANT arr Clyde 29. november (Prantsuse meeskonnad)

Kuues allveelaevade vastane rühm - allveelaevade traalerite remont BENGALI (Ty Sk EE Barnes RNVR), KELT (Sk W Mc K Smith RNR), PICT (Lt Cdr WNM Faichney RNR), SPANIARD (Lt Cdr FJ Webster RNR), TURKOMAN (Ty S/Lt WT Hodson) RNVR) kõik Freetownis

Norra allveelaevade vastased vaalapüüdjad - FALK, HEKTOR VI, KLO, THORBRYN, THORGRIM, TORDONN (CO -d pole loetletud), kõik Capetownis

93. miinipildujarühm - miinipildujad COMMMANDANT DUBOC (prantsuse meeskond) Dualas, COMMANDANT DOMINE (prantsuse meeskond) Lagoses, miinipildujatraalerid GENERAL BIRDWOOD (Sk WJ Taylor RNR) Freetownis, MAPLE (Ty Lt ES Phillips RNR) Freetowni remondis, RED KWWOOD ( RNR) Freetownis, ST MINVER (Ch Sk J Duthie RNR) Freetownis

154. miinitõrjegrupp - miinitraaler POLAR V (Ty Lt K Hendriksen RNR), SKUDD VI (Ty Lt (E) O M Amundsen RNR), mõlemad arr Ponta Delgada 31. dets.

Kontrollitav miinikiht - SNAKEFLY (Lt O H Pullman RNR) Freetownis

Miinitraaler - WILLIAM SCORESBY (Cdr H Petit-Dann Rtd) Port Stanley's

Miinipühkija (pakkumine HAWKINSile) - ROYDUR (Ty F R Jakeman RNVR) Port Stanley's

Miinilaevade abilaevad - ARUM, NERINE, puksiir NGUVU, kõik Capetownis

Baasi remondilaev - VINDICTIVE (Actg Capt J B Heath) arr Freetown 31. dets

Poomi kaitselaevad - BARBROOK (Ty Lt S Wardell RNR), BARCASTLE (Actg Ty Warrant Mech A Burchell RNR), QUANNET (Ty Lt W P Jones RNR), kõik Freetownis

AMEERIKA JA LÄÄNE -INDIES JAAM

Baaslaevad - BUZZARD (Cdr (A) J F W C Hawkins) Jamaical, GOSHAWK (kapten (A) R de H Burton) Trinidadis, MALABAR (aseesimees Charles E Kennedy-Purvis KCB) Bermudal, PURSUIVANT (Cdr R B Martin Rtd) Port Stanley's

8. ristleja eskaader - kergeristlejad CARADOC (kapten JS Bethell) arr Bermuda 27. detsember, DESPATCH (kapten CE Douglas-Pennant DSC, Cdre 2/c) arr Nassau 30. detsember, DIOMEDE (kapten JW Farquhar) dep Kingston 20. detsember, DUNEDIN (kapten RS Lovatt) det Lõuna -Atlandi väejuhatusele (qv)

Allveelaev - PORPOISE (ltd Cdr J G Hopkins) dep Halifax 26. dets

Lisatud hollandi loos - VAN KINSBERGEN (Hollandi meeskond) dep Nassau 9. dets

Ookeanilaev - LADY SOMERS (Cdr G L Dunbar RNR) Quebeci sisustamisel

Depoolaev - traaler SEABORN (Rear Adm S S Bonham-Carter CB, CVO, DSO) Halifaxis

Lahingulaevad - REVENGE (kapten E R Archer), 26. detsember, ROYAL SOVEREIGN (kapten H B Jacomb), 28. detsember, mõlemad Halifax

Kanada hävitajad - ASSINIBOINE (kapten G C Jones, Cdre 2/c RCN), RESTIGOUCHE (Cdr H N Lay RCN), mõlemad arr Halifax 26. detsember

Hollandi allveelaev O.15 (Lt H M L F E van Oostrom Soede) Halifaxis

Relvastatud kaupmeeste ristlejad - ALAUNIA (kapten HJ Woodward DSO Rtd) dep. Halifax, 26. detsember, ASCANIA (kapten CH Ringrose-Wharton Rtd) arr Halifax, 12. detsember, AURANIA (Actg Capt LW Whiteborn) arr Bermuda, 21. detsember, AUSONIA (kapten GH Freyberg CBE Rtd), Halifax 10 Detsember, CORMORIN (kapten JL Hallett Rtd)-Halifax, 24. detsember, LACONIA (kapten GGP Hewett Rtd) dep. Halifax, 1. jaanuar 31. detsember, RAJPUTANA (kapten FH Taylor DSC Rtd) dep. Halifax 30. detsember RANPURA (Actg Capt HTW Pawsey) arr Halifax

Baaslaev, Tseilon - LANKA

Raske ristleja - SHROPSHIRE (kapten J H Edelsten) arr Mombasa 31. dets

Kerged ristlejad - CAPETOWN (kapten P H G James) dep Colombo 29. detsember, CERES (kapten E G Abbott AM, kapten D M L Neame DSO veebruarist) dep Mombasa 2. jaanuar, COLOMBO (kapten C A E Stanfield) dep Mombasa 2. jaan.

Relvastatud kaupmeeste ristlejad - ANTENOR (kapten DI McGillewie Rtd), Colombo 29. detsembril, CARTHAGE (kapten HLI Kirkpatrick OBE Rtd), Colombo 2. jaanuar ja Bombay 6. jaanuaril, HECTOR (kapten F Howard DSC Rtd) Colombos, paigaldades 6. jaanuarile, KANIMBLA (kapten FE Getting) dep Mauritius 26. detsember, RANCHI (kapten CTA Bunbury OBE Rtd) dep Durban 31. detsember

Sloops - FALMOUTH (Cdr C C Hardy, Cdr U H R James alates 15. jaanuarist) patrullimisel Hormuzi väinas, India loopealsuses CORNWALLIS (Cdr H C Beauchamp RIN) Khor Kuwai, Omaan, LAWRENCE (Lt A T J Cole RIN) dep Karachi 21. dets.

Allveelaev - X.2 (jäädvustatud Itaalia GALILEO GALILEI, leitnant P E H Heathfield Rtd) Suessis

Püssipaadid - COCKCHAFER (Lt Cdr A F Roberton-Aikman), Basra, GNAT (Lt Cdr S R H Davenport) arr Alexandria, 28. detsember, TARANTULA (Cdr R C Creer RAN Rtd, Colombo)

Allveelaevade vastased traalerid - AMBER (Actg S/Lt P Le M Andrews RNR) Adenis, MOONSTONE (Lt Cdr P G Britten RNR Rtd) Bombay'is 10. jaanuaril.

Miinipildujad - miinipilduja WIDNES (Lt Cdr R B Chandler), miinitraaler OVERDALE WYKE (Ty Lt N M Waldman RNR), mõlemad Colombos

Salakaubaveo laevad - CHAKDINA (Lt Cdr W R Hickey RNR) arr Aden 24. detsember, CHANTALA (Lt Cdr C E I Gibbs Rtd) dep Aden 18. detsember, PERRONELLE (CO loetletud) Aden, SAGITTA (Cdr J O Dunn RD RNR) arr Aden 24 Dec

Poomi kaitselaevad - BARNET (Sk W Thompson RNR), Colombo, 30. detsember, PLANET (Ty Boom Sk D Cowie RNR), Aden, SANDGATE, SOUTHGATE (CO -d pole loetletud), mõlemad Trincomalee's

Poomikaitse pakkumine - MAJESTIC (CO -d ei ole loetletud) ettevõttes Trincomalee

Poomi kandja - LAOMEDON (Cdr J J E Barclay RD RNR) Adenis

Asepresident Sir Geoffrey Layton

Baaslaevad - SULTAN (tagumine juht T B Drew OBE), TAMAR (Cdre A C Collinson)

5. ristleja eskaader - kerged ristlejad DANAE (kapten F J Butler MBE Actg) Hongkongis, remont

Hävitajad - SCOUT (Lt Cdr DH Harper Rtd, Lt Cdr H Lambton veebruarist) Hongkongis, STRONGHOLD (Lt Cdr R Alexander, Lt Cdr GR Pretor-Pinney Rtd alates 18. märtsist), TENEDOS (Lt Cdr J O'B Milner Barry), mõlemad Singapuris, THANET (Lt Cdr J Mowlam), THRACIAN (Cdr AL Pears Rtd), mõlemad Hongkongis

Yangzte püssipaadid (Haldab kommodoor Hongkong) - GANNET (Cdr AF St. G Orphen) Chungkingis üles pandud, FALCON (Lt Cdr RS Abram) Wushanis, MANTIS, Shanghai ootab lammutamist, PETEREL (SNO Shanghai, Actg Cdr HV Creer RAN Rtd) ) Shanghais, SANDPIPER (Pbty Ty S/Lt JH Taylor RNVR) Changshas, ​​SCARAB (Lt Cdr JA Agnew) Singapuris, SCORPION (Ty Lt Cdr LJ Hegarty DSC RNR) Singapuris, TERN (Lt Cdr MHR Crichton) Hongkongis

Läänejõe püssipaadid (Commodore Hongkongi korraldusel) - CICALA (Lt Cdr G H Gandy Rtd), MOTH (Ty Lt J Douglas RNR), mõlemad Hongkongis, SEAMEW (Lt Cdr N R Murch) Kantonis

Püssipaadid - DRAGONFLY (Lt A H Diack), GRASSHOPPER (Cdr J S Hoffman Rtd), mõlemad Singapuris

Allveelaevade vastased abilaevad - KEDAH (Lt Cdr E Neville) Singapuris, SHU KWANG (Cdr A D Thomson DSC RNR Rtd), TIEN KWANG (Ty Lt W G Briggs RNR), mõlemad Trengganus

2. mootoriga torpeedopaat Flotilla - MTB.7 (Lt RRW Ashby HgKgNVF), MTB.8 (Lt LD Kilbee HgKgNVF), MTB.9 (Actg S/Lt A Kennedy RNVR), MTB.10 (SO, Lt Cdr JC Boldero DSC Rtd), MTB.11 (Lt CJ Collingwood), MTB.12 (S/Lt WE Richards RNVR), MTB.26 (Lt MJ de C Carey), MTB.27 (S/Lt TM Parsons HgKgNVF), kõik Hongkongis

Miinipildujad - ABERDARE (Lt Cdr G Nelson Rtd) ümberehitus, HARROW (Lt G C Hocart Rtd), mõlemad Singapuris

Uurimislaevad - ENDEAVOR (CO loetletud), HERALD (Pbty Ty E R Maples RNR), mõlemad Singapuris

Juhitav miinikiht - REDSTART (lt Cdr H C S C Selby Rtd) Hongkongis

Poomi kaitselaevad - ALDGATE (Ch Sk JH Cowling DSM RNR), BARLANE (Ch Sk F Bremner RNR) BARLIGHT (Ty Lt A w. Skelly RNR), kõik Hongkongis, BARRICADE (Ty Lt HW Clouston RNR), BARRIER (Ch Sk RE Souter RNR) ), DOWGATE (Ty Boom Eng RPW Tonkin RNR), FASTNET (Ch Sk R Thompson RNR), LUDGATE (CO loetletud), kõik Singapuris, WATERGATE (Ch Sk JW Cowling RNR) Hongkongis

3. DOMINION ja INDIAN MAVIES

KUNINGALIK AUSTRAALIA MEREVÄE

Siin on loetletud ainult Austraalia koduvetes kasutatavad Austraalia üksused,

Ülemereülesanded on näidatud nende vastavates käskudes

Raske ristleja - CANBERRA (lipp, kapten H B Farncomb MVO RAN) dep Sydney 30. dets

Kerged ristlejad - ADELAIDE (kapten H A Dušid RAN) saab Noumea 29. detsember, HOBART (kapten H L Howden OBE RAN) dep Fremantle 29. detsember Sydney jaoks.

Relvastatud kaubaristlejad - MANOORA (Actg Capt A H Spurgeon RAN) dep Samarai 29. detsember Ocean Island, WESTRALIA (kapten H V Hudson OBE Emgcy RAN) dep Colombo 23. detsember

20. miinipildujalaevastik - sloop SWAN (Lt Cdr A J Travis RAN), miinipildujalaev ORARA (Lt J G S Fyfe RANR), mõlemad arr Port Phillip Bay 26. dets.

Sloop - WARREGO (Cdr R V Wheatley RAN) arr Port Phillip Bay 26. dets

Allveelaevade vastased patrull -laevad - BINGERA (Lt Cdr E W Livingstone RANR (S) Fremantle'is, BONTHORPE (Lt Cdr F W Blaydon, RANR) asukohta pole antud, MORESBY (Cdr W H Martin RAN) arr Cairns 22. detsember)

Allveelaevade vastased abilaevad - BATHURST (Lt Cdr AV Bunyan RANR (S) Port Phillip Bay's, BERYL II (Ty WO JD Lawrie RANR (S) Victoria's, COOLEBAR (Lt Cdr RA Nettlefold RANR) Sydneys, GOOLGWAI (Lt Cdr JP Tonkin Emgcy RAN)) Sydney, GUNBAR (leitnant NH Muzzell RANR (S) Lääne -Austraalias, HEROS (Ty Lt CH Brown RANR (S) Sydneys, KOROWA) Cdr GL Cant) Sydneys, OLIVE CAM (töökomitee ametnik WO auastmest S Armstrong RANR (S) Lääne -Austraalias, ST GILES (Ty Lt HA Litchfiled RANR (S) Sydneys, TAMBAR (Lt JHP Dixon RANR) Lääne -Austraalias) , TOLGA (Lt Cdr JH Malley Emgcy RAN) Sydneys, TONGKOL (Ty WO WJ Edmonds RANR (S) Sydneys, WYRALLAH (Lt Cdr GD Tancred RAN) Fremantle'is, YANDRA (Lt JA Tapin RANR (S) Fremantle'is)

Täiendavad miinitraalerid - ALFIE CAM (Lt Cdr N J Trace RANR), DURAWEEN (Lt Cdr C W J Patterson RANR), GOONAMBEE (Lt Cdr E W Andrewartha RANR), SAMUEL BENBOW (Lt Cdr K M Levy RANR), asukohti pole antud

Poomi kaitselaevad - KANGAROO (Pbty Ty Lt L C Parnell RANR (S), KOALA (Btswn E D Wilder RAN), mõlemad Sydneys, KOOKABURRA (Lt H R Gaskill RANVR) Darwinis)

Baaslaevad - NADEN (kapten V G Brodeur RCN) Esquimaltis, STADACONA (kapten H E Reid RCN) Halifaxis

Relvastatud kaubaristlejad - PRINCE DAVID (Ty Cdr W B Armit RD RCNR) Halifaxi ümberehitamisel, PRINCE HENRY (kapten J C I Edwards RCN) sisseseade, PRINCE ROBERT (Ty Cdr F G Hart RCN) dep Callao 15. dets.

Hävitajad - ANNAPOLIS (Cdr C D Donald RCN), COLUMBIA (Lt Cdr S W Davis Rtd), 26. detsember, ST CROIX (Cdr H Kingsley RCN), ST FRANCIS (A/Cdr H F Pullen RCN), 25. detsember, kõik saabuvad, Halifaxis või dep.

Allveelaevade vastased abilaevad - ACADIA (Lt Cdr H G Shadforth RCNR), PRANTSUSMAA (Lt J W Bonner RCNR), SANS PEUR (Actg Lt Cdr W C Halliday RCNR), kõik Halifaxis, WOLF (Lt G A Gow RCNR) Esquimaltis

Miinitraalerid - ARMENTIERES (Lt T MacDuff RCNR) Esquimaltis, COMOX (Lt RR Kenney RCNR), FUNDY (Actg Lt Cdr AG Stanley RCNR), GASPE (Actg Lt Cdr HD Mackay RCNR), NOOTKA (Lt Cdr WJ Fricker RCN), Halifaxis

Relvastatud jahid - ELK (Lt Cdr N V Clark RCNR), HUSKY (Lt H Freeland RCNR), mõlemad Bermuda 23. detsember, REINDEER (Lt Cdr E G Skinner RCNR), SKY (CO -d pole), mõlemad Halifaxis

Patrulllaev - LAURIER (Lt R A S MacNeil RCNR) Halifaxis

Poomi kaitselaevad - FESTUBERT Halifaxis

Operatiivsete sõjalaevade kohta vt ka Punase mere vägesid ja Ida -India väejuhatust

Depoolaev - DALHOUSIE (Cdr A R Rattray RIN) Bombays

Treeninglaev - DUFFERIN (CO -d pole loetletud) Bombays

Uuringulaev - UURIJA (Lt Cdr W J C Hughes RIN, Cdr H C Beauchamp RIN alates 11. jaanuar) Bombays

Traaler - MADRAS (S/Lt R Williams RIN)

Kuninglik Uus -Meremaa NAVY
Siin on loetletud ainult Uus -Meremaa koduveteüksused,

Ülemereülesanded on näidatud nende vastavates käskudes

Depoo ja õppelaev - PHILOMEL (kapten E Rotherham) Aucklandis

Kerge ristleja - ACHILLES (kapten H M Barnes) dep Sydney 29. detsember Aucklandi jaoks.

Relvastatud kaubaristleja - MONOWAI (kapten kapten H V P McClintock) dep Auckland 31. dets

25. miinipildujalaevastik - kaevandustraalerid GALE, MATAI (SO), MURITAI (Ty S/Lt R Matheson NZRNVR), PURIRI, RATA (loetletud ainult üks CO), kõik Aucklandis

Abimiinilaevad

I rühm - DUCHESS (CO loetletud), HUMPHREY (Ty Lt J Holt NZRNVR), WAKAKURA (Actg Cdr A D Holden NZRNVR) kõik Aucklandis

II rühm - FUTURIST, LÕUNAMERED (CO -sid pole loetletud), mõlemad Wellingtonis

III rühm - JAMES COSGROVE (ltd Cdr H H Jones NZRNR), THOMAS CURREL (Ty Lt A G Nilsson NZRNVR), mõlemad Lytteltonis

LÕUNA -AAFRIKA LIIDU VALITSUS

Allveelaevade vastased traalerid - BLOOMVLEI (Sk S B Petzer SARNVR), MOOIVLEI (Sk H A Crons SARNVR), RONDEVLEI (Lt R P Dryden Dymond RNVR (SA), SMALVLEI (Lt J Leask SDF) kõik Simonstownis

Allveelaevade vastased traalerid - LÕUNA -FLOE (Ty Lt JEJ Lewis SARNVR), LÕUNA -ISLE (Ty Lt AC Matson SARNVR), LÕUNAPIIDANE (SO, Ty Lt Cdr AF Trew SARNVR), LÕUNA -MERI (Ty Lt A Thomas SARNVR), kõik de Durban, 15. detsember Aleksandria jaoks .


2. jaanuar 1941 - ajalugu

Uus aasta avati 2. jaanuari öösel 100 Saksa pommitaja poolt Cardiffi haaranguga, sellele järgnes järgmisel õhtul haarang Bristolis 170 lennukiga. Järgmisel nädalal, 10. jaanuaril, oli Portsmouth Blitzed ja hulkuvad pommid langesid Surrey, Berkshire'i ja Buckinghamshire'i osade kohale.

Mõisatalu omandanud Etoni kolledž pakkus üürilepingut James Kinross Snr.-le, kes oli kolledži pikaajaline üürnik, kellel polnud talumaja. Seni oli talu baas olnud kahekordne Hollandi punane laut Slough - Eton Roadil. Seda lauta tunti ka kui ‘Tramps Hotel ’ ja tal oli talli kogu talu liikumapanev jõud, milleks sel ajal oli kaksteist hobust. Aida kinnist osa käsutas valitsusosakond varude hoidmiseks, mis sisaldas erinevatel aegadel selliseid esemeid nagu sibul ja maiustused, mis näriliste populatsiooni arvestades ei olnud hea mõte. Sõjaväekauplused koosnesid sellistest asjadest nagu õhujõudude sinised särgid ja jalapulber, meditsiiniline talk jalgadele, sõdurid kasutamiseks.

Clothes rationing made the shirts a desirable item on the Black Market and a temptation to thieves. One night, shortly after the end of the war in Europe, using a lorry, thieves smashed through the barn doors and made off with a quantity of shirts. The shirts, all one size, bore the size mark 22. German P.O.W.'s arriving for work the following morning at Manor farm espied the shirts lying around and proceeded to kit themselves out. Although Manor Farm must be over a mile from one end to the other, the news that Police CID and Military SIB had arrived at the scene of the crime spread like a forest fire. The P.O.W.'s aware of the consequences if caught in possession of stolen property, immediately set about disposing of their loot putting shirts down the toilet, into buckets and in any other suitable place. One German prisoner working out in the field had no alternative but to bury his shirt and carry on working stripped to the waist on a very chilly day. When questioned by the investigating officers, everyone swore that Willie never wore a shirt or coat when working.

Having learnt to drive one of the new-fangled Fordson tractors, James Kinross Jnr. set about ploughing up the hallowed turf of Agars Plough, Eton. Other recreational areas were ploughed and prepared for cereals including the recreation ground at Eton Wick. By September 1943 the Bucks War Agriculture Executive had designated many acres of grass land around the district including 150 acres of the Dorney common for cereal and vegetable cultivation.

Doris Bentley, Barbara Trimmings and Margaret McIntosh, to name three capable members of the Womens Land Army, worked at Manor Farm and Barbara became very skilled at driving the Fordson tractor. On cold mornings the tractor could be difficult to start, the engine needing to be cranked overusing a starting handle this operation require a certain amount of strength and knack, both of which Barbara had acquired. Petrol used for starting was contained in a small section of the fuel tank, the larger section containing the vaporising oil on which the engine ran when suitably warmed up. Once her precaution of covering the engine with sacking against frost and damp almost ended in disaster a leak having developed in the petrol section of the tank dripped onto the sacking during the night. When endeavouring to start the beast the sacking ignited, and a jet of flame shot up those around beating a hasty retreat whilst Barbara coolly extinguished the fire.

Many P.O.W,s were sent to work on local farms and were available on a daily basis from the prisoner of war camp at Maidenhead, being generally allocated at the farmers request in gangs of eight. Max Schattke, a German prisoner of war came to the Manor farm during the summer of 1946. He was an aerial photographer in the Luftwaffe who had been shot down over Caen in 1945 and captured by the Americans. Having been in captivity for some time on the continent Max arrived in England in late January 1946, going into the large POW camp at Reading from whence he transferred to the camp at Ascot commencing work at Manor farm. Upon being discharged from his POW status in January 1948 he voluntarily stayed and worked on the farm for another year as a free man. During his stay Max was encouraged to converse in English with help from Mrs Kinross Senior and after having spent some time exploring England Max returned to Germany in 1951.

“My daughter and I visited Mr and Mrs Kinross at Manor Farm in 1998 and have memories of Doris Bentley who left in late 1945 to marry a Canadian Police Officer, Barbara who left the farm in 1946, and Margaret McIntosh who married Peter French”.

For the first weeks of January there was no enemy activity in the sky over Slough - Windsor to disturb local residents but the Cities of Cardiff, Bristol and Portsmouth suffered from attacks by the Luftwaffe. This respite did not last, for on the morning of February 3rd., a dismal morning with snow falling, a German aircraft dropped bombs on Upton and Ditton Park, Slough. The sound of machine gun fire sent Eton Wick village school children to seek shelter under their desks and although the. damage was slight but the blast from the exploding bombs caused two panes of glass to crack at the school.


2 January 1941 - History

British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day
by Don Kindell

GERMAN NAVY SHIPS, JANUARY 1941 (Part 1 of 2)

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)

GERMAN SURFACE SHIPS and U-BOATS to U.150 (all built or building)

Includes destroyers, torpedo boats and submarines completed by the end of war even if construction did not begin in 1941.


The commanding officer shown for units under construction is the CO on completion

BATTLESHIPS

BISMARCK (KptzS Ernst Lindemann) at Hamburg completing

TIRPITZ (KptzS Karl Topp from Feb 41) at Wilhelmshaven bldg to comp 25 Feb 41

BATTLECRUISERS

GNEISENAU (KptzS Otto Fein) dep Kiel 28 Dec for operations, damaged by weather, ret to Kiel 2 Jan

SCHARNHORST (KptzS Curt Caesar Hoffman) dep Kiel 28 Dec for operations, ret to Kiel with damaged GNEISENAU

ARMOURED SHIPS/POCKET BATTLESHIPS

ADMIRAL SCHEER (KptzS Theodor Krancke), operating in South Atlantic

L TZOW (KptzS Leo Kreish from Mar 41, no Captain attached from late Apr 40 to Mar 41) at Kiel repairing to comp Jun 41

HEAVY CRUISERS

ADMIRAL HIPPER (KptzS Wilhelm Meisel) arr at Brest on 27 Dec from operations

PRINZ EUGEN (KptzS Helmuth Brinkman) at Kiel completing

LIGHT CRUISERS

EMDEN (KptzS Hans Mirow) refitting

K LN (KptzS Ernst Kratzenberg, KptzS Freidrich Huffmeier from May 41) operational

LEIPZIG (KptzS Werner Stichling) at Danzig working up after repairs

N RNBERG (KptzS Leo Kreisch, KptzS Ernst v Studnitz from 20 Mar 41) operational

DESTROYERS

BRUNO HEINEMANN (Z.8, KKpt Hermann Alberts) 6th Fl

ERICH STEINBRINCK (Z.15, KKpt Rolf Johannesson) 5th Fl

FRIEDRICH ECKHOLDT (Z.16, KKpt Alfred Schemmel) 5th Fl

FRIEDRICH IHN (Z.14, KKpt Gunther Wachmuth) 5th Fl

HANS LODY (Z.10, KKpt Werner Pfeiffer) 6th Fl

HERMANN SCHOEMANN (Z.7, KKpt Heinrich Wittig) 6th Fl

KARL GALSTER (Z.20, KKpt Theodor Freiherr von Bechtolsheim) 6th Fl

PAUL JACOBI (Z.5, KKpt Hans G. Zimmer, FKpt Hermann Schlieper from Apr 41) 6th Fl

RICHARD BEITZEN (Z.4, KKpt Hans von Davidson) 5th Fl

THEODOR RIEDEL (Z.6, KKpt Walter Riede) 6th Fl

Z.23 (KKpt Friedrich Bohme) 8th Fl

Z.24 (KKpt Martin Saltzwedel) 8th Fl

Z.25 (KKpt Heinrich Gerlach) 8th Fl

building at Bremen

Z.26 (KKpt Georg Ritter von Berger) to comp 11 Jan 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.27 (KKpt Karl Smidt) to comp 26 Feb 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.28 (FKpt Hans Erdmenger) to comp 9 Aug 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.29 (FKpt Kurt Rechel) to comp 9 Jul 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.30 (KKpt Heinrich Kaiser) to comp 15 Nov 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.31 (FKpt Hermann Alberts) to comp 11 Apr 42, to join 4th Fl

Z.32 (FKpt Georg Ritter und Elder Herr von Berger) to comp 15 Sep 42, to join 4th Fl

Z.33 (KptzS Erich Holtorf) to comp 28 Jan 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.34 (FKpt Karl Hetz) to comp 5 Jun 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.35 (KKpt Niels Batge) to comp 22 Sep 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.36 (KKpt Lothar Frhr von Hausen) to comp 19 Feb 44, to join 4th Fl

building at Kiel

Z.37 (FKpt Georg Langheld) to comp 5 May 42, to join 4th Fl

Z.38 (KKpt Gerfried Brutzer) to comp 29 Mar 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.39 (KKpt Konrad Loerke) to comp 21 Aug 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.40-Z.42 work suspended 1942, broken up 1943

building at Bremen

Z.43 (KptzS Arthur Wenninger) to comp 24 Mar 44, to join 6th Fl

TORPEDO BOATS

FALKE (Kptlt Jan Heinrich Hansen-Nootbar) 5th TBF

GREIF (Kptlt Heinrich Hoffman) 5th TBF

ILTIS (Kptlt Walter Jacobsen) 6th TBF

JAGUAR (Kptlt Werner Hartenstein, Kptlt Friedrich Karl Paul from Mar 41) 6th TBF

KONDOR (Kptlt Freiherr Wilhelm Nickolaus von Lyncker) 5th TBF

M WE, damaged, assigned to Torpedo School, to comp repairs 1 Oct 40, but did not rejoin 5th TBF until Apr 1942

SEEADLER (Kptlt Franz Kohlauf) 6th TBF

WOLF (OzS Broder Peters) 6th TBF

T.1 (Kptlt Carl Aug Richter-Oldekop) 1st TBF

T.2 (Kptlt Heinrich Godecke) 1st TBF

T.3 (Kptlt Heinrich Bruns) 1st TBF

T.4 (Kptlt Erwin Hesse, OzS Konrad Sommerlatt from Oct 41) 1st TBF

T.5 (Kptlt Rudolf Koppenhagen) 2nd TBF

T.7 (Kptlt Wolfgang Erhardt, Kptlt Hans Quaet-Faslem from Apr 41) 2nd TBF

T.8 (Kptlt Heinrich Erdmann, Kptlt Thilo-Leberecht v Trotha from Apr 41) 2nd TBF

T.9 (Kptlt Hans Blose) 1st TBF

T.10 (Kptlt Aug Hoepner) 1st TBF

T.11 (Kptlt Heinrich Hoffman, Kptlt Georg Grund from Jun 41) 2nd TBF

T.12 (Kptlt Viktor Mellin) 2nd TBF

building at Elbing

T.13 (Kptlt Werner Gotzmann) to comp 31 May 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.14 (Kptlt Herbert Juttner) to comp 14 Jun 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.15 (Kptlt Helmuth Duvelius, Kptlt Joachim Quedenfeldt from Jul 41) to comp 26 Jun 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.16 (Kptlt Helmuth Duvelius) to comp 24 Jul 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.17 (Kptlt Hans Blose) to comp 28 Aug 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.18 (Kptlt Aug Hoepner) to comp 22 Nov 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.19 (Kptlt Carl Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 18 Dec 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.20 (Kptlt Carl-Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 5 Jun 42, to join 3rd TBF

T.21 (Kptlt Hans Temming) to comp 11 Jul 42, to join 3rd TBF

T.22 (Kptlt Jan Heinrich Hansen-Nootbaar) to comp 28 Feb 42, to join 5th TBF

T.23 (Kptlt Friedrich-Karl Paul) to comp 14 Jun 42, to join 4th TBF

T.24 (KKpt Heinrich Hoffmann) to comp 17 Oct 42, to join 4th TBF

T.25 (Kptlt Rudolf Koppenhagen) to comp 12 Nov 42, to join 4th TBF

T.26 (Kptlt Wilhelm-Nikolaus Frhr von Lyncker) to comp 27 Feb 43, to join 4th TBF

T.27 (KKpt Wilhelm Verlohr) to comp 17 Apr 43, to join 4th TBF

T.28 (KKpt Carl-Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 19 Jun 43, to join 5th TBF

T.29 (Kptlt Georg Grund) to comp 21 Aug 43, to join 5th TBF

T.30 (Kptlt Hans-Walter Buch) to comp 24 Oct 43, to join 6th TBF

T.31 (Kptlt Heinrich Peter-Pirkham) to comp 5 Feb 44, to join 6th TBF

T.32 (Kptlt Hans Dehnert) to comp 8 May 44, to join 6th TBF

T.33 (Kptlt Bogislav Priebe) to comp 16 Jun 44, to join 6th TBF

T.34 (Kptlt Horst Frhr von Luttitz) to comp 12 Aug 44, to join 5th TBF

T.35 (Kptlt Hans-Walter Buch) to comp 7 Oct 44, to join 5th TBF

T.36 (Kptlt Robert Hering) to comp 9 Dec 44, to join 5th TBF

ex-Norwegian

LEOPARD (ex-BALDER, Kptlt Konrad Sommerlatt, Kptlt Bethge from Oct) 7th TBF

L WE (ex-GYLLER, Kptlt Georg Grund, OzS Gerhard Kellerstrass from May) 7th TBF

PANTHER (ex-ODIN, OzS Walther Jahrmarker, Kptlt Friedrich Meier from Jun) 7th TBF

TIGER (ex-TOR, Kptlt Herbert Juttner, Ozs. Friedrich Nose from Jun) 7th TBF

SUBMARINES

completed

U.2 (Kptlt George v Wilmowitz-Moellendorf, LzS Karl Kolzer from Oct 41) 21st Fl

U.3 (Kptlt Otto Bulow, OzS Hans Trojer from Jul 41) 21st Fl

U.4 (OzS Hansjurgen Zetzsche, OzS Hinrich-Oscar Bernbeck from Feb 41, OzS Wolfgang Leimkuhler from Dec 41) 21st Fl

U.5 (OzS Friedrich Bothe) 21st Fl

U.6 (OzS Johannes Liebe, Kptlt Eberhard Bopst from Mar 41, LzS Herbert Bruninghaus from Oct 41) 21st Fl

U.7 (OzS Gunther Reeder, OzS Ernst-Ulrich Bruller from Jan 41, OzS Gunther Reeder from Feb 41, OzS Hans-Gunther Kuhlmann from Mar 41, OzS Heinrich Schmid from May 41) 21st Fl

U.8 (Kptlt Heinrich Heinsohn, Kptlt Ulrich Borcherdt in May 41, OzS Rolf Steinhaus from Jun 41, OzS Horst Deckert from Aug 41) 22nd Fl

U.9 (Kptlt Joachim Deecke, Kptlt Hans-Joachim Schmidt-Weichert from Jul 41) 21st Fl

U.10 (Kptlt Wolf Rudiger von Rabenau, OzS Kurt Ruwiedel from Jun 41, OzS Hans Karpf from Nov 41) 21st Fl

U.11 (Kptlt Georg Peters) 21st Fl

U.14 (Kptlt Jurgen Konenkamp, OzS Hubertus Przikling from May 41) 22nd Fl

U.17 (Kptlt Wolfgang Schultze, OzS Ernst Heydemann from Oct 41), U-boat Training School

U.18 (Kptlt Ernst Vogelsang, OzS Hans-Achim von Rosenberg-Gruszcynski from May 41) 22nd Fl

U.19 (Kptlt Rudolf Schendel, OzS Gerhard Litterscheid from Jun 41) 22nd Fl

U.20 (Kptlt Herbert Schauenburg, OzS Wolfgang Strater from May 41, OzS Kurt Nolke from Dec 41) 21st Fl

U.21 (Kptlt Bernhard Lohse, OzS Karl-Heinz Herbschleb from May 41) 21st Fl

U.23 (OzS Karl Reichenbach-Klinke, OzS Ernst-Ulrich Bruller from Mar 41, OzS Ulrich Graf from Sep 41) 21st Fl

U.24 (OzS Dietrich Borchert, OzS Helmut Henning from Mar 41, OzS Hardo Rodler von Roithberg from Aug 41) 21st Fl

U.28 (OzS Friedrich Guggenberger, OzS Heinrich Ratsch from Feb 41, OzS Hermann Eckhardt from Jun 41) 24th Fl

U.29 (Kptlt Otto Schuhart, OzS Georg Lassen from Jan 41, OzS Heinrich Hasenschar from Sep 41) 24th Fl

U.30 (KKpt Robert Prutzmann, OzS Paul-Karl Loeser in Apr 41, OzS Kurt Baberg from Apr 41) 24th Fl

U.34 (Ozs Fritz Meyer, OzS Karl-Otto Schultz from May 41, OzS Gerhard Remus from Dec 41) 24th Fl

U.37 (Kptlt Nicolai Clausen, OzS Ulrich Folkers from Apr 41, OzS Gustav-Adolf Janssen from Nov 41) 2nd Fl, transferred to 26th Fl in Apr 41

U.38 (Kptlt Heinrich Liebe, KKpt Heinrich Schuch from Jul 41) 2nd Fl, transferred to 24th Fl in Dec 41

U.43 (Kptlt Wolfgang Luth) 2nd Fl

U.46 (Kptlt Engelbert Endrass, OzS Peter Ottmar Grau from Sep 41, OzS Konstantin von Puttkamer in Nov 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Apr 41

U.47 (KKpt Gunther Prien) 7th Fl

U.48 (Kptlt Herbert Schultze, OzS Siegfried Atzinger from Aug 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Jul 41

U.52 (Kptlt Otto Salman, Kptlt Wolf Rudiger von Rabenau from Jun 41, OzS Walter Frhr von Freyberg-Eisenberg-Allmendingen from Jul 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Jun 41

U.56 (Kptlt Werner Pfeifer, OzS Wolfgang Romer from Apr 41) 24th Fl

U.57 (OzS Wilhelm Eisele) 22nd Fl

U.58 (Kptlt Hans-Jaochim Rahmlow, OzS Horst Hamm from Apr 41, OzS Bruno Barber from Oct 41) 22nd Fl

U.59 (Kptlt Siegfried Frhr von Forstner to Apr 41, OzS Gunter Gretschel from Nov 41) 22nd Fl

U.60 (OzS Georg Wallas, OzS Kurt Pressel from Sep 41) 21st Fl

U.61 (OzS Willy Mattke, OzS Hans Lange from May 41) 21st Fl

U.62 (OzS Ludwig Forster, OzS Max Wintermeyer from Sep 41, Kptlt Waldemar Mehl in Nov 41, OzS Horst Schunemann from Nov 41) 21st Fl

U.65 (KKpt Hans Gerrit von Stockhausen, Kptlt Joachim Hoppe from Mar 41) 2nd Fl

U.66 (KKpt Richard Zapp) to comp 2 Jan 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.67 (Kptlt Heinrich Bleichrodt, OzS Gunther Pfeffer in Jun 41, Kptlt Gunther Muller- Stockheim from Jun 41) to comp 22 Jan 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.68 (KKpt Karl Friedrich Merten) to comp 11 Feb 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.69 (Kptlt Jost Metzler, Kptlt Wilhelm Zahn from Aug 41) working up after comp 2 Nov 40, to join 7th Fl

U.70 (Kptlt Joachim Matz) working up after comp 23 Nov 40, to join 7th Fl

U.71 (Kptlt Walter Flachsenberg) working up after comp 14 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl

U.72 (KKpt Hans Werner Newmann, Ozs. Helmut Koster from Aug 41, OzS Waldemar Mehl from Dec 41) to comp 4 Jan 41, to join 21st Fl

U.73 (Kptlt Helmut Rosenbaum) working up after comp 30 Sep 40, to join 7th Fl

U.74 (Kptlt Eitel Friedrich Kentrat) working up after comp 31 Oct 40, to join 7th Fl

U.75 (Kptlt Helmuth Ringelmann) working up after comp 19 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl

U.76 (Kptlt Friedrich von Hippel) working up after comp 3 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl

building at Vegesack

U.77 (Kptlt Heinrich Schonder) to comp 18 Jan 41, to join 7th Fl

U.78 (Kptlt Adolf Dumrese, OzS Kurt Makowski from Jul 41) to comp 15 Feb 41, to join 22nd Fl

U.79 (Kptlt Wolfgang Kaufmann) to comp 13 Mar 41, to join 1st Fl

U.80 (OzS Georg Staats, OzS Hans Benker from Oct 41) to comp 8 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in May 41

U.81 (Kptlt Friedrich Guggenberger) to comp 26 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl

U.82 (Kptlt Siegfried Rollman) to comp 14 May 41, to join 3rd Fl

building at L beck

U.83 (Kptlt Hans Werner Kraus) to comp 8 Feb 41, to join 1st Fl

U.84 (Kptlt Horst Uphoff) to comp 29 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl

U.85 (OzS Eberhard Greger) to comp 7 Jun 41, to join 3rd Fl

U.86 (Kptlt Walter Schug) to comp 8 Jul 41, to join 5th Fl

U.87 (Kptlt Joachim Berger) to comp 19 Aug 41, to join 6th Fl

U.88 (Kptlt Heino Bohmann) to comp 15 Oct 41, to join 8th Fl

U.89 (KKpt Dietrich Lohmann) to comp 19 Nov 41, to join 8th Fl

U.90 (Kptlt Hans-Jurgen Oldorp) to comp 20 Dec 41, to join 8th Fl

U.91 (Kptlt Heinz Walkerling) to comp 28 Jan 42, to join 5th Fl

U.92 (Kptlt Adolf Oelrich) to comp 3 Mar 42, to join 5th Fl

completed

U.93 (Kptlt Claus Korth, Kptlt Ralph Kaptizky from Aug 41, OzS Horst Elfe from Sep 41) 7th Fl

U.94 (Kptlt Herbert Kuppisch, OzS Otto Ites from Sep 41) 7th Fl

U.95 (Kptlt Gerd Schreiber) 7th Fl

U.96 (Kptlt Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock) 7th Fl

U.97 (Kptlt Udo Heilmann) working up after comp 28 Sep 40, to join 7th Fl

U.98 (Kptlt Robert Gysae) working up after comp 12 Oct 40, to join 7th Fl

U.99 (KKpt Otto Kreschmer) 7th Fl

U.100 (Kptlt Joachim Schepke) 7th Fl

U.101 (Kptlt Ernst Mergersen) 7th Fl

U.103 (KKpt Victor Schutze, Kptlt Werner Winter from Aug 41) 2nd Fl

U.105 (Kptlt Georg Schewe) 2nd Fl

U.106 (Kptlt Jurgen Oesten, Kptlt Herman Rasch from Oct 41) working up after comp 24 Sep 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.107 (KKpt Gunter Hessler, Kptlt Harald Gelhaus from Nov 41) working up after comp 8 Oct 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.108 (KKpt Klaus Scholtz) working up after comp 22 Oct 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.109 (KKpt Hans Georg Fischer, Kptlt Heinrich Bleichrodt from Jun 41) working up after comp 5 Dec 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.110 (Kptlt Fritz Julius Lemp) working up after comp 21 Nov 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.111 (Kptlt Wilhelm Kleinschmidt) working up after comp 19 Dec 40, to join 2nd Fl

not built

U.112 - U.115 projected only

building at Keil

U.116 (KKpt Werner von Schmidt) to comp 26 Jul 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.117 (KKpt Hans-Werner Neumann) to comp 25 Oct 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.118 (KKpt Werner Czygan) to comp 6 Dec 41, to join 4th Fl

U.119 (Kptlt Alois Zech) to comp 2 Apr 42, to join 4th Fl

completed

U.120 (OzS Wolfgang Heyda, OzS Willy-Roderich Korner from May 41) 21st Fl

U.121 (Kptlt Karl Ernst Schroeter, Kptlt Egon Reiner Frhr v Schlippenbach from Mar 41, Kptlt Gert Hetschko from Jul 41) 21st Fl

U.123 (Kptlt Karl Heinz Moehle, Kptlt Reinhard Hardegan from May 41) 2nd Fl

U.124 (Kptlt Wilhelm Schulz, Kptlt Johann Mohr from Sep 41)

U.125 (Kptlt Gunter Kuhnke), to join 2nd Fl

U.126 (Kptlt Ernst Bauer) working up after comp 22 Mar 41, to join 2nd Fl

building at Bremen

U.127 (Kptlt Bruno Hansman) to comp 24 Apr 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.128 (Kptlt Ulrich Heyse) to comp 12 May 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.129 (Kptlt Nicolai Clausen) to comp 21 May 41, to join 4th Fl

U.130 (KKpt Ernst Kals) to comp 11 Jun 41, to join 4th Fl

U.131 (KKpt Arend Baumann) to comp 1 Jul 41, to join 4th Fl

U.132 (Kptlt Ernst Vogelsang) to comp 29 May 41, to join 3rd Fl

U.133 (Kptlt Hermann Hesse) to comp 5 Jul 41, to join 7th Fl

U.134 (Kptlt Rudolf Schendel) to comp 26 Jul 41, to join 5th Fl

U.135 (Kptlt Friedrich Hermann Praetorius) to comp 16 Aug 41, to join 5th Fl

U.136 (Kptlt Heinrich Zimmermann) to comp 30 Aug 41, to join 6th Fl

completed

U.137 (OzS Hanns-Ferdinand Massmann) 22nd Fl

U.138 (Kptlt Franz Gramitsky) 22nd Fl

building at Kiel

U.139 (OzS Horst Elfe, OzS Heiko Fenn from Oct 41) to comp 24 Jul 40, to join 21st Fl

completed

U.140 (OzS Hans Peter Hinsch, OzS Hans-Jurgen Hellriegel from Apr 41) 22nd Fl

U.141 (OzS Heinz Otto Schultze, OzS Philipp Schuler from Mar 41, OzS Kruger from Nov 41) 21st Fl

U.142 (Kptlt Paul-Hugo Kettern, OzS Siegfried Lindke from Oct 41) 24th Fl

U.143 (OzS Helmut Mohlmann, OzS Jurgen Rosenstiel from Mar 41, OzS Harald Gelhaus from May 41, OzS Helmut Manseck from Nov 41) 22nd Fl

U.144 (Kptlt Gert von Mittelstaedt) 22nd Fl

U.145 (Kptlt Rudolf Franzius, OzS Heinz Schomburg from Oct 41) 22nd Fl

U.146 (Kptlt Eberhard Hoffman, OzS Rudolf Ites from Apr 41, Kptlt Ewald Hulsenbeck from Aug 41, LzS Wilhelm Grimme from Oct 41) 22nd Fl

U.147 (Kptlt Reinhard Hardegen, OzS Eberhard Wetjen from May 41) working up after comp 11 Dec 40) 22nd Fl

U.148 (OzS Hans Jurgen Radke, OzS Eberhard Mohr from Sep 41) working up after comp 28 Dec 40, to join 24th Fl

U.149 (Kptlt Horst Holtring, Kptlt Rolf Borchers from Nov 41) working up after comp 13 Nov 40, to join 22nd Fl

U.150 (OzS Hinrich Kelling) working up after comp 27 Nov 40, to join 22nd Fl

For remaining U-boats, go to Part 2 of 2 , U-boats from U.151 (all building or to be built)

one was building for foreign Navy, the rest captured

U.A (KKpt Hans Eckermann) 7th Fl, on patrol in the Atlantic

U.B (ex-British SEAL, FKpt Bruno Mahn)1st Fl

UC.1 (ex-Norwegian B.5, Kptlt Wilhelm Kiesewetter, Kptlt Georg Lange from Jun) U-boat Training School

UC.2 (ex-Norwegian B.6, no commanding officer assigned until Nov 41, OzS Otto Wollschlager from Nov) U-Boat Training School

UD.1 (ex-Dutch O.8, KKpt Hermann Rigele, Kptlt Freidrich Schafer from May, Kptlt Franz Venier from Nov) U-Boat Training School

UD.3 (ex-Dutch O.25, KKpt Hermann Rigele from Jun, KKpt Walther Kolle from Jul) to join 3rd Fl

UD.4 (ex-Dutch O.26, KKpt Helmut Brummer-Patzig, KKpt Rudolf Singule from Nov) repairing to comp 28 Jan 41, to join U-boat Command


The Axis Conquers the Philippines: January 1942-July 1942

The Axis­­ continued to smash forward in World War II during the first half of 1942. On February 15, 1942, the British Empire suffered one of its most humiliating defeats. At 6:15 p.m., in a makeshift conference room in the Ford Motor Company factory in Singapore, General Arthur Percival surrendered the island to Lieutenant General Yamashita Tomoyuki.

The Japanese made the island the headquarters of the Southern Army, which conquered Southeast Asia, and renamed Singapore "Shonan," meaning "Light of the South." Of the 50,000 white troops captured, 18,000 would die of disease and/or mistreatment before war's end.

The Japanese armed forces aimed to capture a broad area in the south. They would defend the perimeter while the rich resources of the region were incorporated into the Japanese war effort.

Resistance was limited. In the Dutch East Indies, the 140,000-man colonial army was overwhelmed. The northern Philippines, with a mixed native and American fo­rce, was quickly overrun except for the Bataan Peninsula, where 100,000 soldiers and refugees were bottled up. The Japanese captured the peninsula in April.

The American headquarters in the fortress of Corregidor, in Manila Bay, fell on May 6, 1942, after a fierce defense. By early June, nearly all American forces in the Philippines had surrendered.­

Further west, a Japanese force overran Burma and entered the capital, Rangoon, on March 8. A Japanese aircraft carrier raided the northern Australian port of Darwin on February 19, and in April Japanese aircraft sank British shipping on the Indian coast.

This was the limit of Japanese expansion, though the assault had been so successful and rapid that senior commanders sought to capitalize on their advantage with further advances. In early May, a naval force sailed south to seize the southern peninsula of New Guinea while Admiral Yamamoto planned a mid-Pacific offensive. This was designed to destroy what was left of U.S. naval power in the ocean and cut off American aid to the South Pacific.

The prelude to the final Japanese assault was the seizure of Port Moresby in southern New Guinea. The task force that was dispatched south in early May was attacked by a small Allied force in the Coral Sea. The battle was a strategic setback for Yamamoto, who was obliged to abandon his plan to seize Port Moresby and isolate Australia. This was the first hint that Japanese expansion was nearing its limit.­

A month later, Yamamoto dispatched a huge task force to Midway Island, hoping to lure what was left of the U.S. Pacific Fleet to battle and then annihilate it. With a small force of carriers and sufficient secret intelligence on Japanese intentions, the Pacific Fleet commander, Admiral Chester Nimitz, planned a daring interception.

As the Japanese carrier fleet neared Midway, it was attacked by American dive-bombers. Only a few of their bombs struck, but they sank all four fleet carriers. Yamamoto ordered a return to Japan. His plans had been frustrated by America's intelligence successes, astute leadership, combat skills, and luck.

Elsewhere, the global war remained balanced on a knife edge. China's long, drawn-out conflict with Japan had become a formal state of war on December 9, 1941, following Pearl Harbor. Although the Japanese army controlled much of eastern and northern China, Chinese hit-and-run tactics made it difficult for Japan to pacify and control even those areas under occupation.

In May 1942, Japanese commanders embarked on a ruthless policy of pacification -- "kill all, steal all, burn all" -- to try to deter further Chinese resistance. Roughly 250,000 Chinese were killed in 1942.

In North Africa, British Empire forces based in Egypt had moved forward successfully across Libya against weak Italian resistance. But in January 1942, against an Axis force strengthened by a Nazi German corps under General Erwin Rommel, the British Empire Forces began a long retreat back to Egypt. Tobruk fell to the Axis on June 21, and by the end of June Axis forces were a few miles from El Alamein, Egypt, within striking distance of the Suez Canal.

The British position at sea -- in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic -- remained precarious. In 1942 they lost 7.8 million tons of shipping. Britain was able to import only one-third of what it took in before the war. The Allies' persistent bombing of Nazi German naval installations and submarine building sites achieved almost nothing.

The most dangerous situation lay in the Soviet theater. With the successful defense of Moscow in December 1941, the Soviets launched further offensives, trying to find weak spots in the Nazi German line. In the south, the Red Army created a large salient in Nazi German defensive lines south of Kharkov.

But when Joseph Stalin ordered the Red Army to capture the city in May 1942, the Nazi German front absorbed the attack and then encircled and annihilated the attackers. In the Crimea, the Nazi Germans repulsed a Soviet counteroffensive on the Kerch Peninsula. In July, they captured Sevastopol after an assault with the world's largest artillery piece: "Big Dora."

Nazi Germany's central ambition was the final defeat of the Soviet Union in 1942. Adolf Hitler planned to attack the less well-defended southern front toward the Volga River and the Caucasus oil fields. Their capture would give his forces huge new oil supplies and deny them to the enemy.

On June 28, Nazi Germany launched "Operation Blue" with substantial success. The Soviet southern front retreated. So successful was the assault that Adolf Hitler divided the force in two. He sent the Sixth Army, under General Friedrich Paulus, to seize Stalingrad and cut the Soviet Union off from the resources of the south. By August, Nazi German forces had reached the oil city of Maikop and were advancing toward the rich oil fields around Grozny.

In midsummer 1942, the war was poised in the balance. The strategic dream of the Axis powers was to link up in the Middle East. They would seize the Suez Canal and the oil that lay beyond it from one side, and they would sweep down from the Caucasus on the other side.

With Japan threatening India and the United States not yet fully armed, the ambition seemed less fantastic at the time than it now appears. Yet the summer of 1942 saw the high watermark of Axis aggrandizement. Over the next year, the Allies would find not just greater resources but also more effective ways of fighting. They were poised to reverse the long series of defeats that had until then littered their war effort.

Let's take a closer look at these events, beginning with a timeline of early January 1942 on the next page.


1941 scenario (world) (january)

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Today in World War II History—January 14, 1941

80 Years Ago—Jan. 14, 1941: Off Antarctica, German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin captures 14 Norwegian whaling ships without firing a single shot or causing a single casualty.

"V for Victory” is suggested by former Belgian Minister of Justice Victor de Lavelaye, in a BBC broadcast from London to Nazi-occupied Belgium, Holland, and France.

Norwegian whaling factory ship Pelagos, 1931, captured by Pinguin 14 January 1941 (public domain via Vestfold Fylkesmuseum Digitalt bildearkiv and Wikipedia)


The Lend-Lease Act

In 1941 Congress passed a bill allowing the president to provide assistance to nations whose defense was considered vital to the security of the United States. Known as the Lend-Lease Act, it became the principal means for providing U.S. aid to key Americans allies, especially Great Britain, during World War II. The act permitted the president to “loan” war materiel such as ammunition, tanks, and airplanes to allies without expectation of repayment. Though the United States would not declare war until December 8, 1941, the Lend-Lease Act effectively ended U.S. neutrality.

[This bill] will make Uncle Sam the best and biggest Santa Claus the world has ever seen. . . . [it is] the worst kind of blank-check appropriation.

Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, The New York Times, January 26, 1941


Our West Coast Correspondent

Alates Töötegevus, Vol. 5 No. 3, 20 January 1941, p.ك.
Transkribeeritud ja võimendatud Einde O ’ Callaghan jaoks Trotskismi entsüklopeedia võrgus (ETOL).

Speaking before an audience of 100 Negroes recently on the burning issue of Negroes in aircraft, we summed up the whole situation in one phrase: jim-crowism.

And that’s about the size of it. A royal run-around, a kicking around, and an endless merry-go-round is all that Negroes have been getting when seeking employment in the aircraft industry.

There are a total of 8 Negroes employed in production, out of over 60.000 workers in this area. They work at Douglas. The company put them on after a pressure campaign by Negro organizations. This bread crumb is supposed to prove that Douglas doesn’t discriminate. But everyone is wise to that one.

Before we discuss what has happened to Negroes seeking work in aircraft, let us point out that they expect to get jobs just like anyone else for the very good reason that they have the same rights to work and live as anyone else. Besides, they know they’ll be called on to die during war, and they feel a country isn’t worth dying for unless they can live like men in it beforehand. The large Negro population in Los Angeles, numbering over 75,000, is very bitter about jim-crowism in general and even more so about the exclusion of Negroes from war industries. And they are most bitter about aircraft because of the lousy deal they get.
 

When They Go For A Job

When young Negroes go to an aircraft plant, the management tells them that they would be very glad to hire them but they are inexperienced. “We don’t discriminate, but of course we must have trained men,” is the story.

So the Negroes go to the trade schools and apply for training in various aircraft jobs. At the schools they are told,

“We’d be very glad to teach you, but the aircraft companies don’t hire any Negroes so it would be a waste of time. We feel that under the circumstances we should not admit you to school.”

That’s what the more astute and polite bosses stooges tell the Negroes. Others tell them point blank, “You got to be a white man to handle that kind of work. You’re not smart enough.” And similar insults.

The Negroes have experienced so much of this that they had a hard time believing that a white man, myself, was willing to aid them in a campaign to place Negroes in aircraft. The chairman of the meeting carefully explained that I was not running for office or getting paid, but that I was just as hot and bothered about the injustice as they, because I believed in class solidarity as a step towards building socialism.
 

Union Takes Courageous Stand

Not the least ticklish problem in connection with this situation is the attitude of the union movement.

Only one aircraft union has dared to face the issue, has had the courage lo lake a stand on it. This is the Vultee CIO union.

The Vultee union took a stand on the question of Negroes in aircraft, after a disgraceful incident at the Vultee strike victory dance. Some Negro unionists came to attend the dance and were asked to leave. Nad pidid lahkuma.

A resolution was introduced at the next union meeting at which speeches were given by militants and Stalinists explaining the disgrace this was to the best traditions of the CIO and showing the need for class solidarity.

The resolution, which called for an apology, passed. It also put the union on record against racial discrimination, affirmed the Negro’s right to work in aircraft, and pledged the union to assist in this struggle. The resolution passed by a substantial majority, not unanimously. As a matter of fact, its passage, to put the truth bluntly, hurt the CIO temporarily in the drive to organize aircraft, because so many of the aircraft workers are while chauvinists at present.

The white workers are easily duped by the bosses and their stooges who tell them that if Negroes are hired, white men will lose their jobs. The CIO is doing a good job of exposing this lie. Aircraft industry is still hiring hundreds of men weekly. New jobs are always being created. And Negroes should have their share of them.

One of the Negro organizations here which has taken up the struggle is the militant American Advancement League. The National Negro Congress, a CP controlled outfit, has also raised the issue.

Groups of Negroes are demanding training at least at their own trade school, which the NYC has set up. And they intend to go to the plants and demand jobs or else picket the employment office, we’ve been informed. This is going to be a long and hard struggle. It will first be necessary to teach the union movement why the white workers must unite with the Negroes in this fight. It won’t be a picnic to force the NYA to give classes to the applicants. Nor are the companies going to be convinced easily.

But, as we told the audience

You know you never got a thing in life unless you fought bitterly for it. You have nothing lo lose. Your lives can’t become more miserable no matter how this thing ends up.”

“Soon we’ll have to fight and die for nothing in another phoney war to save democracy which we don’t have. Surely its better to fight and die for something worthwhile.

The response was such that we have confidence in the future. Fighting jim-crowism in aircraft isn’t the only fight these splendid people are going to make.


Vaata videot: Сериал про войну 1943. Все серии 2013 Русские сериалы