Päästearmee

Päästearmee

Aastal 1865 asutas metodisti jutlustaja William Booth Londoni East Endis kristliku misjoni, et aidata vaeseid toita ja majutada. Missioon reorganiseeriti 1878. aastal sõjaväelisel viisil, jutlustajad olid tuntud ohvitseridena ja Booth kindralina. Pärast seda sai rühm nime Päästearmee.

Booth püüdis oma jumalateenistustele tuua mitteametliku õhkkonna, mis innustaks uusi pöördunuid. Päästearmee kohtumisi iseloomustas rõõmus laulmine, instrumentaalmuusika, käte plaksutamine ja kutse meelt parandada.

Kindral Boothi ​​mõjutas sügavalt tema abikaasa Catherine Booth, kes uskus, et naised on meestega võrdsed ning nende meeste intellektuaalseks alaväärtuseks muutis ainult ebapiisav haridus ja sotsiaalsed kombed. Ta oli inspireeriv esineja ja aitas edendada naiste jutlustajate ideed. Päästearmee andis naistele kuulutamise ja hoolekandetöö eest meestega võrdse vastutuse ning ühel korral märkis William Booth, et: "Minu parimad mehed on naised!"

Inglismaa kirik oli Boothi ​​tegevuse suhtes alguses äärmiselt vaenulik. Juhtiv poliitik ja evangelist Lord Shaftesbury kirjeldas William Boothit kui "antikristust". Üks peamisi kaebusi Boothi ​​vastu oli tema "naiste tõstmine mehe staatusesse". Päästearmee liikmed vangistati vabas õhus kuulutamise eest ja nende toetus karskusühingule muutis nad sihtmärgiks luukereväeks tuntud meeste jõukudeks.

1882. aastaks selgus Londoni küsitlusest, et ühel nädalaööl oli Päästearmeega koos jumalateenistusi peaaegu 17 000, tavakirikutes aga 11 000. Isegi Yorki peapiiskop dr William Thornton pidi leppima sellega, et Booth ja tema järgijad jõudsid inimesteni, kellele anglikaani kirik ei suutnud mingit mõju avaldada.

Päästearmee nägi vaeva, et noori naisi prostitutsioonist päästa. Aastal 1885 tegi armee koostööd William Steadi ja tema Maiden Tribute kampaaniaga. Nad osalesid ka valge orjakaubanduse lõpetamises.

1890 avaldas William Booth oma raamatu Pimedamas Inglismaal ja väljapääs. Booth väitis, et töötutel tuleks aidata luua oma kogukondi Suurbritannias ja välismaal. Boothi ​​järgijad üritasid selle skeemi jaoks raha koguda, kuid kuigi neid kogukondi ei loodud, aitas kampaania luua Päästearmee üheks Suurbritannia juhtivaks heategevusorganisatsiooniks.

Londoni vaestega töötades sai Catherine Booth teada nn higistatud tööjõust. See tähendab, et naised ja lapsed töötavad pikka aega madala palga eest väga halbades tingimustes. Catherine ja päästearmee kaasliikmed üritasid häbistada tööandjaid parema palga maksmise eest. Samuti püüdsid nad parandada nende naiste töötingimusi.

Päästearmee oli eriti mures naiste pärast, kes tegid tikke. Need naised ei teeninud mitte ainult 1 -d. 4d. kuueteistkümnetunnise päeva jooksul riskisid nad ka oma tervisega, kui kastsid tikutopsi selliste tootjate nagu Bryant & May tarnitud kollasesse fosforisse. Suur osa neist naistest kannatas kollase fosfori mürgiste aurude põhjustatud läikiva lõualuu (luu nekroos) all. Kogu näopool muutus roheliseks ja seejärel mustaks, eraldades ebameeldiva lõhnaga mäda ja lõpuks surma.

1891. aastal avas Päästearmee Ida-Londonis Old Fordis oma tikuvabriku. Ainult kahjutut punast fosforit kasutades valmistasid töötajad peagi kuus miljonit kasti aastas. Kui Bryant & May maksid oma töötajatele veidi üle kahe sendi bruto, siis Päästearmee maksis oma töötajatele sellest summast kaks korda rohkem. William Booth korraldas parlamendisaadikute ja ajakirjanike ringreise selle „mudelitehase” ümber.

Boothi ​​vanim poeg William Bramwell Booth järgnes isa kindralina 1912. aastal. Tema teine ​​poeg Ballington Booth oli armee ülem Austraalias (1883–85) ja USA-s (1887–96). Üks tema tütardest, Evangeline Cora Booth, valiti kindraliks aastal 1934. Päästearmee on nüüdseks loodud 80 riigis ja sellel on 16 000 evangeelset keskust ning tal on üle 3000 sotsiaalhoolekandeasutuse, haigla, kooli ja asutuse.

Pimedaima Inglismaa kodanikud, kelle poole ma pöördun, on (1) need, kes ilma omakapitali või sissetulekuta oleksid kuu aja pärast nälga surnud, kui nad sõltuksid ainult oma tööga teenitud rahast; ja (2) need, kes oma suurima pingutusega ei suuda saavutada toiduainete reguleerimistoetust, mille seadus näeb ette hädavajalikuna isegi meie kuritegude halvimate kurjategijate jaoks.

Lord Brabazoni sõnul on "kaks kuni kolm miljonit meie elanikkonnast alati vaesunud ja alandatud". Härra Chamberlain ütleb, et on "metropoli elanikega võrdne elanikkond", mis jääb nelja ja viie miljoni vahele, "mis on pidevalt olnud kohutavas vaesuses ja viletsuses." Pimedamal Inglismaal on seega tohutu meeleheitel rahvahulk, kelle seisund on nominaalselt vaba, kuid tõesti orjastatud - see on see, keda me peame ütlema.

Linnas kasvatatud laps on oma nõo juures maakonnas tuhandes miinuses. Kuid igal aastal on maakonnas rohkem linnas kasvatatud lapsi ja nõbu. Tervete laste kasvatamiseks soovite kõigepealt kodu; teiseks piim; kolmandaks, värske õhk; ja neljandaks võimlemine roheliste puude ja sinise taeva all. Kõik need asjad on iga riigi töölise lapse käes või varem. Linnades asendavad piim tee ja nõlvad ning õlu ning järgmise põlvkonna luud ja kõõlused saavad hällist välja.

Kodu hävitatakse suures osas seal, kus ema järgib isa tehasesse ja kus tööaeg on nii pikk, et neil pole aega oma lapsi näha. Näiteks kui palju aega on Londoni omnibussijuhtidel oma igapäevaste põlvnemisülesannete täitmiseks? Kuidas saab mehel, kes on omnibussis neliteist kuni kuusteist tundi päevas, aega olla oma lastele isa selle sõna mis tahes tähenduses? Tal on vaevalt võimalus neid näha, välja arvatud siis, kui nad magavad. Paljud uued tööstused, mis on juba poisikesest peale alguse saanud või arenenud, eiravad inimese vajadust seitsme päeva pärast puhata. raudtee, postkontor ja trammitee sunnivad kõiki töötajaid rahule jääma vähem kui jumalikult määratud minimaalne vaba aeg.

Ükskõik, mida mõeldakse võimalusest täiskasvanutega midagi ette võtta, on üldtunnustatud, et lastel on lootust. "Ma pean olemasolevat põlvkonda kadunuks," ütles juhtiv liberaalne riigimees. "Meeste ja naistega, kes on praegustes demoraliseerivates tingimustes üles kasvanud, ei saa midagi teha. Minu ainus lootus on, et lastel on paremad võimalused. Haridus teeb palju." Kuid kahjuks laste demoraliseerivat olukorda ei parandata - need on tõepoolest pigem mitmes mõttes halvemad.

Öeldakse, et tänapäeval on lapsel hariduse hindamatu eelis. Ei; ta ei ole. Haritud lapsed ei ole. Neid surutakse läbi "standardite" abil, mis täpsustavad teatavat tutvust A B C ja nõiavägede ja figuuridega, kuid haritud nad ei ole oma varjatud võimete arendamise mõttes nii, et nad oleksid võimelised oma ülesandeid elus täitma.

Olen kuulnud tähelepanuväärseid naiskõnelejaid. Mõned neist seisavad pea ja õlad kõigi kohal. Seal oli päästearmee ema Catherine Booth, kes oli üks lihtsamaid armastuse evangeeliumi väljendajaid, keda ma kunagi kuulnud olen. Ma arvan, et tema kõned, jutlused ja üleskutsed nõrkade ja langenute nimel olid ühed parimad lihtsad vahistamissõnad, mida ma kunagi kuulnud olen.

Tema teoloogia oli üsna raske ja kitsas ning väga dogmaatiline. Hiljem kasutas ta oma energiat noorte tüdrukute ja vallaslaste heaks. Kogu tema hing ja vaim valati välja lakkamatutes pingutustes, et panna mehed mõistma oma vastutust. Poliitikas nõudis ta seadusandlust, et tõsta nõusoleku vanust ja tagada nende kahetsusväärsete ohvrite ülalpidamine, kellel puudub meie individuaalne ja sotsiaalne vastutus.

Tema vaim oli nagu valge leek. Tema sees oli põlev tuli. Temas polnud õrnast pühakust midagi ja mõnikord tekkis tal kohutav viha, nagu ma kord nägin, mis kõrvetas ja lõhkes neid, kes olid ta reetnud või teinud mõne musta töö.

Päeval, mil ma teda vaatama läksin, oli Daily Mail, alustas ta vihastamisega ja seejärel pehmendas. Hetkel haaras ta mind randmest ja tiris mu kõrval põlvili. "Palvetagem Alfred Harmsworthi eest," ütles ta. Ta palvetas kaua ja tõsiselt Harmsworthi ja Fleet Streeti ning ajalehe Press eest, et see võiks olla inspireeritud tõearmastusest ja heategevusest ning Issanda Vaimust.


Päästearmee lugu

Päästearmee Londonis. Puulõige graveering Heinrich Egersdörferi (saksa maalikunstnik, 1853 - 1915) joonistuse järgi raamatust "Die Gartenlaube (Aia lehtla)". Avaldanud Ernst Keil, Leipzig, 1883 Pilt: Getty Images


Päästearmee kiriku lühiajalugu

Endine metodisti minister William Booth alustas evangeeliumi kuulutamist Inglismaa Londoni vaestele ja viletsatele inimestele 1852. aastal. Tema misjonitöö võitis palju pöördunuid ning 1874. aastaks juhtis ta 1000 vabatahtlikku ja 42 evangelisti, kes teenisid nimega "Kristlik missioon". Booth oli kindralinspektor, kuid liikmed hakkasid teda nimetama kindraliks. Rühmitusest sai Halleluuja armee ja 1878. aastal Päästearmee.

Päästjad viisid oma töö Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 1880. aastal ning vaatamata varasele vastuseisule saavutasid nad lõpuks kirikute ja valitsusametnike usalduse. Sealt hargnes armee Kanadasse, Austraaliasse, Prantsusmaale, Šveitsi, Indiasse, Lõuna -Aafrikasse ja Islandile. Praegu on liikumine aktiivne enam kui 115 riigis, kaasates 175 erinevat keelt.


The Blind Beggar pubi Whitechapelis, Londonis, Boothsi esimese töö asukoht - hõivatud ja mitmekesine piirkond veel tänagi (2017)

Kui William ja Catherine Booth alustasid Londonis tööd, millest sai Päästearmee, oleks vähesed ennustanud nende pärandit: organisatsioon, mis on osa kristlikust kirikust, töötab praegu enam kui 130 riigis ja mille ajalugu ulatub üle 150 aastat. Kogu selle aja jooksul on olnud miljoneid liikmeid ja inimesi on aidatud kogu maailmas - kuid sellel liikumisel oli tagasihoidlik algus.

Täna seisavad Williami ja Catherine Boothi ​​kujud Londoni piirkonnas, kus algas Päästearmee

Alguspäevad

1829. aastal Suurbritannias Nottinghamis sündinud William Booth leidis oma kristliku usu juba varakult ja sai aktiivseks metodistiks, jutlustades ja aidates oma piirkonna vaeseid. Pärast mõnda aega pandimaaklerina töötamist kolis ta koos abikaasa Catherine Mumfordiga Londonist ida poole. Nad alustasid koostööd kristlike ärimeeste rühmaga, kes olid mures oma kogukonna vaeste ja ebasoodsate tingimuste pärast. Juunis 1865 kuulutas William Booth rahvahulkadele väljaspool pubi Blind Beggar uut organisatsiooni The Christian Mission.

William Booth jutlustab kohtumisel Ida -Londoni telgis (foto: rahvusvaheline pärandikeskus)

Järgneva paari aasta jooksul liikumine õitses. Keskendudes inimeste õpetamisele Jeesuse sõnumist viisil, millega nad suhestuda saaksid, kohtudes kõikjal, kus suutsid - tantsusaalid, keeglisaalid ja õues -, samuti mõnede nende materiaalsete vajaduste rahuldamiseks, nägid paljud inimesed kristlasteks. Hoolimata avalikkuse vastuseisust, kellele mõned Boothsi meetodid ja stiil ei meeldinud, ühinesid paljud.

Oluline oli nende keskendumine neile, kelle traditsioonilised kirikud olid tagasi lükanud. Kõik olid oodatud - ka vaesed ja ebasoodsas olukorras olevad.

Ümbernimetamine

Kristlik missioon sai oma praeguse nime 1878. aastal. William Booth vaidlustas selle aasta aastaaruandes sisalduva fraasi: „Kristlik missioon… on vabatahtlik armee.” Sõna „vabatahtlik” asendamisega sai Päästearmee oma uue tiitli ja koos sellega inspireeritud metafoori oma rollist võitluses ühiskonna ebaõiglust ja inimeste mõistmist Jumalaga. Aja jooksul sai organisatsioon sõjaväe stiilis tiitleid (näiteks ministrid on „ohvitserid”) ja isegi vormiriietust, mille eesmärk oli avalikult näidata pühendumust Jumalale.

Vaatamata praeguse ja 1865. aasta armee erinevustele on organisatsioon jätkuvalt inimeste ja nende olukordade jaoks asjakohane. Alates iganädalastest jumalateenistustest, väliüritustest, klubidest ja üritustest kuni katastroofidele reageerimiseni ja abivajajatele praktilise toe pakkumiseni jätkub sama evangeeliumi rakendamise vaim nagu neil esimestel päevadel.

Täna seisavad Williami ja Catherine Boothi ​​kujud Londoni piirkonnas, kus algas Päästearmee

Täna seisavad Williami ja Catherine Boothi ​​kujud Londoni piirkonnas, kus algas Päästearmee


Päästearmee - ajalugu

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Päästearmee LGBT-vastase diskrimineerimise ajalugu

Viimastel aastatel on päästearmee sattunud tule alla LGBT-vastaste poliitiliste manöövrite ja muude vahejuhtumite pika ajaloo tõttu. Kirik on avalikult väljendanud oma veendumust, et homoseksuaalsus on vastuvõetamatu, öeldes:

Pühakiri on homoseksuaalsetele tavadele vastu otsese kommenteerimise ja ka selgelt vihjava taunimisega. Piiblis käsitletakse selliseid tavasid iseenesestmõistetavalt ebanormaalsena. . Katsed luua või edendada selliseid suhteid kui elujõulisi alternatiive heteroseksuaalsele pereelule ei vasta Jumala tahtele ühiskonna suhtes.

Kuigi sellised avaldused eemaldati hiljuti Päästearmee veebisaidilt, ei ole kirik veel ühtegi oma selgesõnalist geivastast veendumust tagasi lükanud. Ja kuigi need positsioonid võivad tunduda piirduvat rühma sisemiste doktriinidega, on neist saanud kiriku avaliku poliitilise tegevuse püsiv element - tegevused, mis on negatiivselt mõjutanud Päästearmee võimet osutada heategevuslikke teenuseid ja mille eesmärk on piirata LGBT kodanike õigused ja eelised mitmes riigis.

1986 - Uus -Meremaa Päästearmee kogus allkirju homoseksuaalse seaduse reformimise seaduse vastu, millega tühistati seadus, mis kriminaliseeris täiskasvanud meeste vahelise seksi. Päästearmee vabandas hiljem seadusevastase kampaania eest.

1998 - USA päästearmee otsustas San Francisco linnaga sõlmitud lepingutest tagasi lükata 3,5 miljonit dollarit, mille tulemusel lõpetati kodututele ja eakatele mõeldud programmid. Kirik taganes nendest lepingutest San Francisco nõude tõttu, et linnatöövõtjad peavad pakkuma abikaasade hüvesid nii samasoolistele kui ka töötajate vastassoost partneritele. Kolonelleitnant Richard Love ütles:

Me lihtsalt ei saa nõustuda, et järgime määrust.

2004. aastal ähvardas ka Päästearmee New Yorgis sarnase mittediskrimineerimise määruse tõttu sulgeda kõik oma teenused linna kodututele.

2000 - Šotimaa Päästearmee esitas parlamendile kirja, mis on vastu 28. paragrahvi tühistamisele - seadus, mis keelab "õpetada igas ülalpeetavas koolis homoseksuaalsuse aktsepteeritavust kui teeseldud peresuhet". Kiriku Šotimaa sekretär kolonel John Flett kirjutas:

Võime kergesti ette kujutada olukorda, kus homoseksuaalsuse aktiivse propageerimise tõttu koolides kasvavad lapsed üles, kui nad ei järgi.

Šotimaa päästearmee pole kunagi tagasi võtnud ega vabandanud oma ettepaneku pärast, et homoseksuaalsust edendatakse koolides või lapsi julgustatakse homodeks.

2001 -Ameerika Ühendriikide päästearmee üritas sõlmida kokkuleppe Bushi administratsiooniga, tagades, et föderaalset rahastust saavad religioossed heategevusorganisatsioonid on vabastatud igasugustest kohalikest määrustest, mis keelavad geidevastase diskrimineerimise. Kiriku pressiesindaja David A. Fuscus selgitas, et rühmitus ei soovi laiendada arstiabi oma töötajate samasoolistele partneritele.

Tehing kukkus pärast seda, kui see oli avalikustatud Washington Post.

2012 - Burlingtoni päästearmee, Vermont, vallandas väidetavalt juhtumi töötaja Danielle Morantezi kohe pärast seda, kui oli avastanud, et ta on biseksuaalne. Kiriku töötajate käsiraamatus on osaliselt kirjas: "Päästearmee jätab endale õiguse teha tööotsuseid töötaja käitumise või käitumise alusel, mis ei ole kooskõlas Päästearmee põhimõtetega."

Hiljem samal aastal kinnitas Päästearmee pressiesindaja major George Hood uuesti kiriku geivastaseid veendumusi, öeldes:

Suht samasooliste isikute vahel on isiklik valik, mida inimestel on õigus teha. Kuid kiriku seisukohast näeme, et see läheb vastu Jumala tahet.

2013 -Päästearmee eemaldab jätkuvalt oma veebisaidilt linke religioossetele ministeeriumidele, mis pakuvad niinimetatud "endiste geide" teisendusravi, näiteks Harvest USA ja Pure Life Ministries. Need lingid anti varem ressurssideks Päästearmee sektsiooni all, mis käsitleb "seksuaalseid sõltuvusi".

"Ilma diskrimineerimiseta" - müüt või fakt? Päästearmee on hiljuti püüdnud sellele arusaamale kirikust kui homofoobist vastu seista, pühkides oma veebisaitidelt selgesõnaliselt geivastaseid avaldusi ja avaldades missioone, mis väidetavalt "kummutavad" LGBT-vastaste hoiakute "müüdi".

Ometi ei suuda need püüded oma mainet puhastada, et vastata kiriku poliitika kõige olulisemale kriitikale. Päästearmee kinnitab, et paljud tema supiköökide ja kodutute varjupaikade kliendid on LGBT kogukonna liikmed ning neid isikuid teenindatakse diskrimineerimata. Nad lisavad veel: "Päästearmee võtab omaks paljude erinevate uskude ja suundumustega töötajaid ning järgib palgates kõiki kehtivaid diskrimineerimisvastaseid seadusi."

Need avaldused ignoreerivad täielikult reaalsust, et Päästearmee jätkab homovastaste teoloogiliste hoiakute säilitamist ning diskrimineerib jätkuvalt oma töötajaid ja nende partnereid. Samuti jätavad nad mainimata, et organisatsioon ajalooliselt "järgib" diskrimineerimisvastaseid seadusi, sulgedes teenused piirkondades, kus sellised seadused kehtivad. Päästearmee ei ole näidanud, et kavatseb neid LGBT-vastaseid poliitikaid muuta.

Päästearmee toetamine sel hooajal, kas vahetades oma punased veekeetjad või annetades kasutatud kaubad nende edasimüügipoodidele, tähendab agressiivselt geivastase kiriku abistamist diskrimineerimise eesmärkide saavutamisel. Tulevased annetajad peaksid kaaluma, kas „kõige parema tegemine” võib tähendada ühe toetamist paljudest teistest tõhusatest ja mainekatest heategevusorganisatsioonidest, kes abivajajaid abistavad, ilma homovastaste veendumuste, poliitika või poliitilise tegevuseta.


Päästearmee Florida

William Booth alustas ministrikarjääri 1852. aastal. Tema ristisõda pidi võitma Londoni kadunud rahvahulgad Kristusele. Ta läks Londoni tänavatele, et kuulutada vaestele, kodututele, näljastele ja vaestele Jeesuse Kristuse evangeeliumi.

Booth loobus tavapärasest kiriku ja kantsli kontseptsioonist ning viis oma sõnumi inimesteni. Tema kirg tõi kaasa lahkarvamusi Londoni kiriku juhtidega. Nad eelistasid traditsioonilisi meetmeid. Selle tulemusena taandus ta kirikust ja reisis kogu Inglismaal evangeeliumikoosolekuid pidades. Tema naine Catherine oli päästearmee liikumise peamine jõud.

1865. aastal kutsuti William Booth Londoni idaotsa korraldama mitmeid evangeelseid koosolekuid. Ta rajas telgi kveekerite surnuaeda ja tema teenused said kohe edu. Sellega osutus tema rändamise lõpp iseseisva rändava evangelistina. Tema kuulsus usujuhina levis kogu Londonis. Tema järgijad olid jõuline rühm, kes oli pühendunud võitlusele meeste ja naiste hingede eest.

Vargad, prostituudid, mängurid ja joodikud olid Boothi ​​esimesed ristiusku pöördujad. Tema kogudused olid meeleheitlikult vaesed. Ta kuulutas lootust ja päästet. Tema eesmärk oli viia nad Kristuse juurde ja siduda nad kogudusega, et saada edasist vaimset juhatust. Ehkki kirikud ei pööranud usku, ei võtnud nad Boothi ​​järgijaid vastu selle tõttu, mis nad olid. Booth andis nende elule vaimselt suuna ja pani nad tööle, et päästa teisi, kes olid sarnased iseendaga. Ka nemad jutlustasid ja laulsid tänavatel kui elav tunnistus Jumala väest.

1867. aastal töötas Boothil vaid 10 täistööajaga töötajat. Aastaks 1874 oli nende arv kasvanud 1000 vabatahtlikuks ja 42 evangelistiks. Nad teenisid nime all kristlik missioon. Booth võttis endale kindralsuperintendendi tiitli. Tema järgijad kutsusid teda “ General. ” Tuntud kui “Halleluuja armee, ” pöördusid pöördunud Londoni idaosast naaberpiirkondadesse ja seejärel teistesse linnadesse.

Booth luges printeri tõendeid 1878. aasta majandusaasta aruande kohta, kui märkas seda avaldust, ‘ ”Kristlik missioon pastor William Boothi ​​superintendendi all on vabatahtlik armee. Ta tõmbas kriipsu alla sõnad “Vabatahtlik armee ” ja kirjutas “ Päästearmee ”. Nendest sõnadest sai alguse Päästearmee asutamisakt, mis võeti vastu sama aasta augustis.

Pöördunutest said Kristuse sõdurid ja neid tuntakse päästjate nime all. Nad alustasid pealetungi kogu Briti saartel. Mõnel juhul toimusid tõelised lahingud, kuna organiseeritud jõugud pilkasid ja ründasid sõdureid, kui nad oma tööd tegid. Vaatamata vägivallale ja tagakiusamisele pöörati aastatel 1881–1885 päästetöötajate teenistusse umbes 250 000 inimest.

Vahepeal oli sõjavägi USA -s jalule jõudmas. Leitnant Eliza Shirley oli lahkunud Inglismaalt, et liituda vanematega, kes olid varem Ameerikasse tööd otsinud. Ta korraldas Päästearmee esimese kohtumise Ameerikas Philadelphias 1879. aastal. Päästjad võeti entusiastlikult vastu. Shirley kirjutas kindral Boothile ja palus täiendust. Esialgu polnud ühtegi saadaval. Helendavad teated Philadelphias tehtud töö kohta veensid Boothit saatma ametliku grupi tööd Ameerikas pioneerima 1880.

10. märtsil 1880 põlvitasid komissar George Scott Railton ja seitse naissoost ohvitseri New Yorgis Battery Parki sadamakai ääres, et tänada nende turvalise saabumise eest. See pidi olema nende esimene ametlik tänavakoosolek USA -s. Need pioneerid pidid kohtuma sarnaste ebasõbralike tegudega, nagu Suurbritannias. Neid naeruvääristati, arreteeriti ja rünnati. Mitu ohvitseri ja sõdurit andsid isegi oma elu.

Kolm aastat hiljem olid Railton ja seitse “Hallelujah Lassies ” ‘ laiendanud oma tegevust Californiasse, Connecticuti, Indiana, Kentucky, Marylandi, Massachusettsi, Michigani, Missouri, New Jersey, New Yorgi, Ohio ja Pennsylvania osariiki.

President Grover Cleveland võttis 1886. aastal vastu päästearmee ohvitseride delegatsiooni ja andis organisatsioonile sooja isikliku heakskiidu. See oli Valge Maja esimene tunnustus, millele järgnesid sarnased vastuvõtud Ameerika Ühendriikide presidentidelt.

Seda nimetati USA sissetungiks ja Päästearmee liikumine laienes kiiresti Kanadasse, Austraaliasse, Prantsusmaale, Šveitsi, Indiasse, Lõuna -Aafrikasse, Islandile ja Saksamaale. Praegu on Ameerika Ühendriikides üle 10 000 kohaliku naabruskonna üksuse ning Päästearmee tegutseb praktiliselt igas maailma nurgas.

USA lõunapiirkonna lühike ajalugu

Päästesõja algus salvod tulistati Baltimore'is, Marylandis, kui Shirley perekond sinna 1881. aastal jõudis. Varased õnnestumised järgnesid kogu Marylandis ja sealt levis töö Lõuna kaudu edasi.

Lõuna oli Hispaania-Ameerika sõja ajal tähelepanu keskpunktis, kuna Floridast sai Ameerika vägede stardipunkt enne Kuubale sõitmist. Esimene töö Ameerikas sõjaväelaste seas toimus siin vägede seas.

Päästearmee lõunaosas leidis oma varanduse seotud talumajandusega, kus domineeris puuvill ja tubakas. Kui hinnad tõusid ja langesid, kogesid korp nii buumiaegu kui ka kukkumist. Tööd oli raske luua, kuid lõpuks oli tunne, et piirkond on piisavalt tugev, et saada oma käsuks.

1927. aasta aprillis tuli rahvusülem Evangeline Booth Atlantasse, et kuulutada lõunapiirkonna avamist. Uue väejuhatuse juhiks määrati komissar ja proua William McIntyre, kanadalased, kelle teenistus oli peaaegu täielikult Ameerika Ühendriikides. Avamine ei olnud sujuv, sest kaks aastat hiljem langes maailmale suur depressioon.

Majanduse paranedes ja lõunaosas lahendades aastate jooksul toimunud rassilise segregatsiooni tekitatud probleeme, leidis armee kasvuks viljakamad põllud. See pragmaatiline lähenemine sotsiaalsetele küsimustele ja selle lihtne, kuid südamlik kristliku evangeeliumi kuulutamine on võimaldanud sellel kasvada jätkuvalt kiirenevas tempos. Lõuna -territooriumil, mis on praegu üks maailma kõige kiiremini kasvavaid territooriume, kasvab praegu uusi valdkondi, näiteks rahvusministeeriumid Hispaania ja Aasia korpusega.

Uuenduslikud sotsiaalsed programmid on jätkuvalt hoidnud armee tööd asjakohasena hoolekandereformist tingitud ülemineku ajal. Selle kristliku sõnumi elujõust annavad tunnistust uued korpuse avamised, suurem kadettide arv, suurem koosolekute osavõtt ja optimism, mis sellega kaasneb edasi marssima.


Päästearmee - ajalugu

Päästearmee populaarsus I maailmasõja ajal toimunud ülemereterritooriumide tulemusel oli suuresti ebaproportsionaalne teenuse kogusega - kuigi mitte kvaliteediga. [Ohvitseride ülemereülesanded olid 241 meest ja naist, lisatöötajad tõid kokku umbes 500 inimest. Neid toetas 268 liiget Ameerika Ühendriikides.] Prantsusmaal võitis päästearmee taignapoisi kiindumuse ning kogu rahva tänu ja austuse, kuid nende Prantsusmaale läinud päästjate vaim ei erinenud kes jäid Ameerikasse ja pidasid slummide lasteaedu, puudustkannatavate meeste ja naiste kodusid või muid sarnaseid programme. Kuid rahva pilgud olid suunatud Prantsusmaa poole, rahva mõtted olid koos meestega lahinguväljadel ja seal said miljonid ameeriklased esimest korda teada päästearmee vaimust.

Päästearmee võitis oma tunnustuse Esimese maailmasõja ajal oma töö eest välismaal. Õnnelik valik Prantsusmaa sõjatöö direktoriks oli kolonelleitnant William S. Barker, kes lahkus 30. juunil 1917 New Yorgist koos adjutant Bertram Roddaga, et uurida Prantsusmaa olukorda. Relvastatud president Wilsoni sekretäri Joseph P. Tumulty soovituskirjaga võttis Barkeri vastu Ameerika suursaadik Prantsusmaal, kes korraldas talle kohtumise kindral Pershinguga.

Evangeline Booth
Vahepeal käisid USA -s ettevalmistused poiste jälgimiseks välismaal. Päästearmee riiklik ülem Evangeline Booth laenas töö alustamiseks 25 000 dollarit ja hiljem laenas rahvusvaheliselt peakorterilt veel 100 000 dollarit. Rahaline toetus päästearmee sõjategevusele oli alguses aeglane, kuid nagu ülem ütles: "Küsimus on ainult selles, et me saame Prantsusmaale tööle ja Ameerika avalikkus näeb, et meil on kogu raha, mida tahame."

Kolonel Barker helistas Prantsusmaalt, et saata mõned tüdrukud. Komandör Evangeline Booth oli väga üllatunud, kuid usaldades Barkerit, hõlmas ta Prantsusmaale saadetud esimesse rühma mõned hoolikalt valitud naissohvitserid. "Sallide" töö õigustas Barkeri tarkust taotluse esitamisel.

Esimene AEF -ga liitunud päästearmee ohvitseride rühm lahkus New Yorgist "Espagne'iga" 12. augustil 1917. Kuus meest, kolm naist ja abielupaar moodustasid üheteistkümne partei, kõik Ida osakonnast. Teine, üheteistkümneliikmeline seltskond, mis purjetas 13. septembril, koosnes peamiselt Lääne osakonna ohvitseridest. Iga Prantsusmaal sõjateenistusse vastu võetud päästearmee ohvitser kontrolliti hoolikalt läbi. Alguses otsustati piirata välismaale saadetavate numbrite arvu ja hoida kõrgeimat kvaliteeti. Ükski vihje skandaalile ei olnud kunagi seotud Päästearmee tüdrukuga Prantsusmaal, kuigi peaaegu kõigil juhtudel olid tüdrukud tuhandete koduigatsuspoiste pideva kummardamise all, kes võisid pead pöörata.

Päästearmee Prantsusmaal läks esmalt tööle esimese diviisi piirkonda. Esimene partei maandus Prantsusmaal 22. augustil 1917 ja esimese onniga alustati tööd 1. septembril. Esimene "hutment", nagu seda nimetati, oli pikk sektsioonhoone, 40 x 150 jalga, mõlemal küljel kümme akent. Sellel oli viis meest ja kuus tüdrukut, kes kõik olid muusikud, kes lisaks söökla opereerimisele andsid kontserte ja juhatasid lauluteenuseid. Päästjad viisid läbi piiblitunde, kuid nende hoone oli teistele konfessioonidele või vennaskondadele kättesaadav. Selles peeti juudi jumalateenistusi ja ühel korral viis initsiatsiooni läbi Põdra Lojaalne Ordu. Tüdrukuohvitserid osutasid riiete parandamise teenust.

See esimene onn mitmekordistuks järgmise viieteistkümne kuu jooksul fenomenaalselt 400 korda. Pisike rühm päästetöötajaid ja töökaaslasi paneks püsti nii palju onne, hosteleid ja puhkeruume, mis kõik oleksid peaaegu kodu sarnased, kui inimlik leidlikkus neid teha suudab, mõned otse eesliinil.

See sõõrik oli aga see, mis taignasõbrale vaimustus. Et teada saada, kuidas sõõrik, millest me nüüd teame, sai, külastage Doughboy Centeri funktsiooni artiklit:

Sõõrik! Ametlik lugu
Kuigi sõõrikust sai Prantsusmaal Päästearmee sümbol, küpsetasid pirukad ja koogid ka toornahjudes aeglased ning limonaadi pakuti ka kuumadele ja janustele vägedele. Mehi köitis mitte ainult maitsev koduköök, vaid ka vaim, millega seda serveeriti. Lihtne saladus oli see, et päästjad ei teeninud mitte ainult sõdureid, vaid ka Jumalat ning nad tõid pähe mõtteid kodust ja sealsetest inimestest. At The Salvation Army hut the men could not only bring their uniforms to be mended they could also bring their problems to share. As buttons were sewed on, a brief message of help was offered.

Soldiers in France frequently had more money that opportunities to spend it. To discourage gambling and the purchase of wines and liquors, and to aid families in the United States, The Salvation Army officers encouraged the soldiers to take advantage of the Salvation Army's money-transfer system. In those pre allotment days soldiers would give their money to a Salvation Army officer, who would enter the sum on a money order blank and send it to National Headquarters in New York. From there it went to the corps officers nearest the soldier's home, who would then deliver the money in person to the soldier's family or relatives. Often cases of need were discovered through these visits, and other Salvation Army services might be made available to help those in distress. The money-transfer plan also worked in reverse on occasions when friends sent money to soldiers overseas.

One of the things that the American soldiers marveled at was the fact that the Salvation Army followed them right to the front. The women as well as the men went where the troops happened to be, and often were in danger from shells and gas.

Enthusiasm for the Salvation Army spread like wildfire through the AEF in France, from the lowliest doughboy to General Pershing himself. The stories of the work of the Salvation Army in France first reached America through the letters of the men "over there," and then through the stories of war correspondents. A special correspondent of the New York Times wrote:

With the American Army in France -

When I landed in France I didn't think so much of the Salvation Army after two weeks with the Americans at the front I take my hat off to the Salvation Army. The American soldiers [also] take off their hats to the Salvation Army, and when the memoirs of this war come to be written the doughnuts and apple pies of the Salvation Army are going to take their place in history.

Received with an attitude of skepticism in the fall of 1917, the Salvation Army soon became the most popular organization in France. There were other agencies at work, and with these. there was no open competition and much cooperation. On one occasion when a Salvation Army canteen ran out of supplies with a long line of soldiers still unserved, a YMCA truck drove up. and continued serving where the Salvation Army truck had left off.

Many newspaper articles attest to the Army's popularity. As one paper editorialized:


Few war organizations have escaped criticism of some sort, but there is, so far, one shining exception, and that is the Salvation Army. Every soldier and civilian who has been brought into contact with its workers sing their praises with enthusiasm. Wherever they have been they have "delivered the goods" -- they have proved 100% efficient as moral and material helpers.

Financial support for the Salvation Army's war program came with a rush. A plea for a million dollars, endorsed by President Wilson and Secretary of War Newton Baker in December, 1917 was soon answered. In 1918, the Salvation Army joined the YMCA, YWCA, War Camp Community Service, National Catholic War Council, Jewish Welfare Board, and the American Library Association in a United War Work Campaign to raise $170 million of which the Salvation Army was to receive $3.5 million. This drive was underway when the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918.

Salvation Army war work in [Europe] did not end with the armistice. Hospital visitation and nursing aid continued after the war, as did other services for the troops in France and later in occupied Germany. The Salvationists were frequently given a commission to get a watch repaired or to buy a Christmas or birthday gift for some loved one. They furnished paper and pens and urged soldiers to write home. They helped the troops returning home by sending telegrams announcing their expected return date and time and even helping families re-unite at busy docks.

Sources and thanks: Sources: Susan Mitchem, Director of the Archives at Salvation Army Headquarters, provided all the content and photos. MH

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Salvation Army - History

The history of the Salvation Army began in 1865, when William Booth established an evangelical and philanthropic organisation to preach salvation from sins and propagate purity of life among the poor and destitute people of London's East End. William Booth and his wife Catherine Mumford Booth, who grew up in the most turbulent time of the Industrial Revolution, believed that evangelical work among the poor must be accompanied by well-organised social relief work.

Theological Roots

The Salvation Army, founded by William and Catherine Booth, aimed to continue the tradition of socially committed evangelicalism which dated back to John Wesley's Methodism and American revivalism propagated by James Caughey. Booths' dogma was John Wesley's Arminian theology of &ldquofree salvation for all men and full salvation from all sin.&rdquo (Murdoch 2)

The Christian Mission (1865-1878)

In early 1865, William and Catherine Booth received invitations to preach in London. William began preaching outside the public house in Whitechapel Road called The Blind Beggar, trying to save the souls of people that were not particularly welcomed by the established churches. In late 1865, the Booths founded the Christian Revival Association, an independent religious association, which was soon renamed the East London Christian Mission. It was organised after the Wesleyan tradition. In 1867, the Christian Mission acquired the Eastern Star, a run-down beer shop, for 120 pounds, and turned it into its first headquarters known as the People's Mission Hall, which began to perform two functions: religious and social. It housed people for all-night prayer vigils, known as the Midnight Meeting movement, and also sold cheap food to the needy. (Rappaport 101-2)

Left: General William Booth . Right: Mrs. Catherine Booth both by George Edward Wade.

The East London Christian Mission, which operated as a charitable religious movement, was one of some 500 Christian missions established in the East London slum areas, but it soon began to distinguish itself by its unconventional social work, setting a number of mission stations across East London with the aim to spread the salvation message and to feed and shelter the destitute. In 1870, Catherine Booth started a social scheme called &ldquoFood for the Million&rdquo aimed at helping the poor and destitute. The Mission set up five outlets in East London, which were administered by Bramwell Booth and James Flawn. Hot soup was always available day and night and a modest dinner of three courses could be bought for sixpence, but due to insufficient funding this scheme had failed by 1874. (Inglis 197)

During its first years, the Christian Mission, restricted by a system of commissions and conferences, showed a slow progress in East London because it lacked funds, a firm doctrine, a stable organisational basis and devoted assistant evangelists, who could effectively address the unchurched working-class masses. When revivalist preaching produced a relatively little effect among the East End's, &ldquoheathens&rdquo as they were called by the Booths, a new strategy was devised. The Mission began to use new methods of approaching the attention of slum dwellers through militant language, uniforms, popular music, and a Victorian love of public spectacle.

Since theatres could not operate on Sundays, William Booth decided to hire one for the Mission's Sunday services. His first choice was the Oriental Theatre (Queen's Theatre) in Poplar, which offered music-hall entertainment and had a capacity of 800 people. Next Booth hired the Effingham Theatre, which was described as one of the &ldquodingiest and gloomiest places of amusement in London,&rdquo but it could accommodate 3000 people. Booth's Sunday services were announced by sensational advertisements like: &ldquoChange of performance, &rdquo or &ldquoWanted 3000 men to fill the Effingham Theatre. The Rev. William Booth will preach in this theatre on Sunday next evening.&rdquo (Bennett 22) Booth attracted an audience of 2000 which listened to his preaching with great interest. His strategy was to combine serious preaching with popular entertainment, like that in music-halls.

William Booth and his wife Catherine adhered to the idea of militant or aggressive Christianity, and they believed that autocratic leadership was more effective in spreading evangelisation to uneducated and unchurched working-class masses than traditional forms of pastoral care. In 1870, William Booth assumed the position General Superintendent of the Christian Mission and became &ldquothe undisputed leader of the organization.&rdquo (Bennett 45) The popularity of the Christian Mission was growing steadily, particularly outside London, in spite of difficulties and opposition, and by 1878 it had 30 stations and 36 missioners in various locations across the United Kingdom. As Pamela J. Walker has written,

The Christian Mission was part of a broad evangelical missionary effort to reach the urban working class. Its theology drew on Methodism, American revivalism, and the holiness movement. William Booth's open air preaching was similar to the work that had been done by evangelicals for decades. The Mission, however, differed from other home missions. The authority it granted women, its emphasis on holiness theology and revivalist methods, its growing independence, and its strict hierarchical structure were all features that sharply distinguished it from its contemporaries. The Christian Mission was created in the midst of the working-class communities it aimed to transform. It fashioned an evangelical practice from the geography and culture of the working-class communities it strived to convert. [42]

The Birth of the Salvation Army

In 1878, when William Booth was dictating a letter to his secretary George Scott Railton, he used a phrase &ldquoThe Christian Mission is a Volunteer Army.&rdquo His teenage son Bramwell heard it and said: &ldquo Volunteer, I’m not a volunteer, I’m a regular or nothing!” (Gariepy 9) This prompted William Booth to substitute the word &ldquoSalvation Army&rdquo for the &ldquoVolunteer Army,&rdquo which became the new name of the Christian Mission. The last of the Christian Mission conferences, held in August, 1878, adopted unanimously the new military programme of the Salvation Army.

Uniforms, Flags and Tambourines

The Salvation Army developed its new image by emulating the structure and conduct of a military organisation. In the Christian Mission the male evangelists wore modest frock coats, tall hats and black ties. Women evangelists wore plain dresses, jackets and plain Quaker-type bonnets which protected them from being hit by a disrespectful mob that not infrequently threw at them cow manure, bad eggs, or stones. Women also wore brooches with an S letter. After the Mission became the Salvation Army, a type of uniform, modelled on Victorian military garb, was adopted.

In the 1880s, the Salvation Army, which resembled a quasi-military organisation, began to establish its mission stations all over Britain and also overseas. These mission stations were called &ldquocorps.&rdquo Their members wore distinctive quasi-military uniforms, had ranks ranging from &ldquo Cadet&rdquo (a candidate for ministry), through &ldquoLieutenant&rdquo and &ldquoCaptain&rdquo to the highest one &ldquo General&rdquo vested in William Booth. Rank-and-file members were called &ldquosoldiers&rdquo and new converts were &ldquocaptives.&rdquo

Salvationists used military vocabulary to describe their religious practices. For example, revival meetings were &ldquosieges,&rdquo places of worhip were &ldquocitadels&rdquo or &ldquooutposts,&rdquo daily Bible readings were called &ldquorations.&rdquo Birth was referred to as the &ldquoarrival of reinforcements, &rdquo and death was &ldquopromotion to glory&rdquo (Taiz 20). These military metaphors seemed to be more appealing to the masses than traditional preaching.

The first flag of the Salvation Army, designed by Catherine Booth, was presented to Coventry Corps in 1878. Initially, it was crimson with a navy-blue border, which symbolised holiness, and a yellow sun in the middle, which was later replaced by a star, that signified the fiery baptism with the Holy Ghost. The motto written on the star, 'Blood and Fire', stands for the blood of Christ and the Fire of the Holy Ghost. According to a contemporary estimate, at the close of the year 1878 the Salvation Army had 81 corps and 127 officers, of whom 101 had been converted at its own meetings. (Briggs 700)

Thanks to these transformations the Salvation Army became stronger, better organised and more effective. The Army's unconventional evangelistic and social activity, which was manifested by lively processions with banners, cornets and tambourines, appealed to the working-classes more than traditional preaching.

The Salvation Army was a neighborhood religion. It invented a battle plan that was especially suited to urban working-class geography and cultural life. Religious words were sung to music-hall tunes circus posters and theater announcements were copied so closely that observers often failed to distinguish them preachers imitated the idiom of street vendors and congregations were encouraged to shout out responses to the preacher, much as they might in the music halls. Salvationists culled techniques from contemporary advertising and revivalism. Their military language aptly expressed Salvationists' command to do battle with the enemy. The Army regarded pubs, music halls, sports, and betting as its principal rivals, yet its ability to use popular leisure activities as its inspiration was a major facet in its success. [Walker 2]

The Social Wing of the Salvation Army

According to Norman H. Murdoch, &ldquoby 1886 the Salvation Army's growth had come to a halt in England — much as the Christian Mission's growth had ceased in East London by 1874&rdquo (113) — mostly because William Booth primarily preached the need for salvation, i.e. redemption from sin and its effects, but overlooked social work among the poor and destitute.

In the mid 1880s, the Salvation Army developed new strategies which aimed to deal with the poverty and squalor of urban slums. Street preaching, home meetings, prayer groups and Bible study were supplemented by social action. Francis S. Smith, who was for some time a Salvation Army commissioner in the United States, and William Thomas Stead, one of the most distinguished Victorian journalists and a dedicated supporter of the Salvation Army (later a Titanic victim), contributed to the rise of the Social Wing of the Salvation Army. They argued convincingly that the Army should not concentrate on pure evangelism only, but must be involved more actively in social work in order to win converts from the lower classes. William Booth quickly understood these arguments and he endorsed the new strategy which was to involve the Salvation Army in Christian social reform.

Smith and Stead helped Booth to write In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890), an important manifesto, which proposed social and welfare schemes aimed to eradicate poverty, squalor and unemployment in congested urban areas through organised labour exchanges, food distribution networks, co-operative workshops and farms, and emigration of surplus labour to the British colonies.

The Salvation Army magazine, All the World from 1893, reported that in the period from November 1, 1892, to October 1st, 1893, the Social Wing of the Salvation Army provided 3,886,896 meals, 1,094,078 men were sheltered, 1,987 passed through Elevators (work establishments), 267 were provided with situation, 159 passed to Farm Colony and 180 men from Prison-Gate Home were sent to situations (477). Besides, the Salvation Army promoted job creation schemes by encouraging local authorities to employ unemployed people in roadwork and tree-planting on public roads.

In 1893, the Army also expressed 'great interest' in the formation of a Government Labour Department, which would gather statistics and information about vacant jobs. By 1900, the Salvation Army had opened its own labour exchange in London to help poor people find jobs. However, it was not until 1909 that Parliament passed a law which provided for the establishment of nationalised labour exchanges. The social ministry of the Salvation Army became one of its most valuable assets in the last decade of Victorian Britain.

In Darkest England

Booth's book, In Darkest England and the Way Out , made a shocking comparison between darkest Africa and contemporary England. The General pointed out that of the thirty-one million population of Great Britain, three million people lived in what he called &ldquodarkest England.&rdquo Next he described his ideas how to apply the Christian faith to an industrialised society. The book became an instant bestseller &ldquoselling roughly 115,000 copies within the first few months after its publication &rdquo (Robert Haggard 73). Almost immediately Booth received sympathetic responses not only from common readers but also from wealthy individuals, who promised to make substantial donations.

The title of Booth's book alludes to Henry Morton Stanley’s famous travel narrative, In Darkest Africa (1890). The general message of the book was that the subhumane living conditions in English urban slums were not different from those in Africa.

As there is a darkest Africa is there not also a darkest England? Civilization, which can breed its own barbarians, does it not also breed its own pygmies? May we not find a parallel at our own doors, and discover within a stone's throw of our cathedrals and palaces similar horrors to those which Stanley has found existing in the great Equatorial forest? [18]

Booth wanted the general public to fully realise that England was still a divided nation, and the divide between the rich and the poor threatened the spiritual and economic development of the nation.

The Equatorial Forest traversed by Stanley resembles that Darkest England of which I have to speak, alike in its vast extent – both stretch, in Stanley's phrase, &ldquoas far as from Plymouth to Peterhead&rdquo its monotonous darkness, its malaria and its gloom, its dwarfish de-humanized inhabitants, the slavery to which they are subjected, their privations and their misery. That which sickens the stoutest heart, and causes many of our bravest and best to fold their hands in despair, is the apparent impossibility of doing more than merely to peck at the outside of the endless tangle of monotonous undergrowth to let light into it, to make a road clear through it, that shall not be immediately choked up by the ooze of the morass and the luxuriant parasitical growth of the forest &mdash who dare hope for that? At present, alas, it would seem as though no one dares even to hope! It is the great Slough of Despond of our time. [19 ]

The book provided shocking facts and statistics about England's poor, the majority of whom were homeless, jobless and starving. Booth estimated that one tenth of Britain's population, which he called the 'submerged tenth', lived in abject poverty and destitution. Shocked by the ugliness, misery and the grinding deprivation of slum dwellers, under the influence of his wife and collaborators William Booth devised a social relief programme to remedy the moral, spiritual and physical destitution of the poor. It was expressed succinctly by the slogan &ldquosoup, soap and salvation,&rdquo which served as the ideological basis of the Salvation Army.

Booth's social engineering scheme had some affinity with that proposed earlier by Thomas Carlyle. Both of these Victorian sages were concerned with the moral and material conditions in England. Booth included extracts from Carlyle's Past and Present in Darkest England . In writing his book Booth also drew on the social ideas of Cobbett, Disraeli, Ruskin, Morris, among others. Booth's treatise was aimed at revealing the economic, social, and moral problems of poverty, squalor, homelessness and unemployment in England at the end of the Victorian era. He then presented a number of proposals for a great reconstruction of the nation by eliminating squalor, poverty, destitution and vice from congested slum districts.

His welfare scheme proposed the establishment of homes for orphaned children, rescue centres for women and girls who were affected by prostitution and sex trafficking, rehabilitation centres for alcoholics and ex-prisoners. Besides, he planned to organise a Poor Man's Banker Service, which would make small loans to labourers who wanted to buy tools or start a trade, and a Poor Man's Lawyer Service, as well as establishments for industrial labour of unemployed, co-operative farms, and oversea colonies for people who could not find steady employment in England. Booth's programme was founded on both evangelical philanthropy and imperial ideology. His intention was to revitalise England's redundant labour within Britain's imperial expansion.

Booth drew attention to the Salvation Army by advocating a rather simple proposal. If private donors agreed to contribute L100,000, he would establish a number of city workshops and farm colonies to elevate the moral and material condition of the London poor. Within the workshops and colonies, the poor would be required to submit to strict discipline and moral supervision. They were also expected to take their work seriously. Those who graduated from one of the city workshops would be transferred to a farm colony in England later, after they had proven themselves as farm laborers, they would be allowed to migrate overseas, either to a Salvation Army farm colony in Canada or Australia or to a homestead of their own. Pursuant to these goals, the Salvation Army purchased a one-thousand-acre estate in Essex for mixed farming and brick manufacture in 1891. By 1893, the Salvation Army had organized five city colonies in London providing work for 2,700 people &mdash a match factory, a creche-knitting factory, a book-binding factory, a laundry, and a text-making and needlework factory the Salvation Army also sponsored eighteen labor bureaux and a registry office for unemployed domestic servants. Although seemingly quite expensive, many people believed that Booth's program would be cost effective over time, particularly in comparison with the Poor Law. [Haggard 72]

In Darkest England provoked a relatively positive response. &ldquoFew books upon their first appearance have received so much attention, &rdquo wrote an enthusiastic donor in the Contemporary Review , who himself gave 1,500 pounds for the Social Wing schemes (Inglis 204) After the publication of Booth's book the number of individual philanthropists, who aided the General with money and moral support, grew considerably. Many of Booth's ideas were implemented during his life, others were put into action in the 20th century when the state welfare system began to operate.

Rescue Shelters

The Salvation Army ran different types of shelters for men and women in London and other locations in Britain as well as overseas. The cheapest one was the penny sit-up shelter. Its inmates were allowed to sit on a bench in a heated spacious hall all night long. However, they could not lie down and sleep on the bench. If an inmate could spare another penny, he could get a rope put across the bench and was allowed to sleep hanging over the rope. The inmates were woken up abruptly early at daybreak because the rope was cut, and they had to leave the shelter which was then cleaned and ventilated. Another type of shelter, which cost four-penny, was called a 'coffin house' because homeless people could sleep in wooden boxes which looked like coffins. The package included hot breakfast in the morning. In some shelters soup and bread were also on offer.

In the 1890s the Salvation Army started again the soup for the poor scheme. In 1896, the Salvation Army distributed 3.2 million meals, provided lodgings for 1.3 million, and found employment for 12,000 men. By 1890, it had provided a substantial amount of charitable relief through its twelve food depots, sixteen night shelters, thirteen refuges for women, and numerous soup kitchens. The Salvation Army also held annual clothing and blanket drives, sold life insurance, and owned a savings bank during the 1880s. [Henry R. Haggard 72]

The first night shelter for men was opened in 1888 at 21 West India Dock Road in Limehouse. Next shelters were opened at 61A St John's Square, Clerkenwell 272 Whitechapel Road, Whitechapel and at 83 Horseferry Road, Westminster. Some of the shelter occupants could hope to get employment in factories, which Salvationists called, Elevators, because they were to elevate the moral character and the self-respect and capacity of the destitute people. They were trained in carpentering, brushmaking firewood, baskets, paper sorting, tinwork, shoemaking, matchmaking. Others could be sent to the large farm at Hadleigh, where they were trained in agricultural jobs. The farm at Hadleigh-on-Thames, which contained 1,500 acres, trained men in agriculture, joinery, and making of bricks and shoes. About 1,200 men served as colonists during a year. Of these more than 300 were discharged because they were unwilling to work or were irreformable drunkers. (Briggs 709) The Salvation Army also made efforts to secure occupation for them in the British Dominions.

Rehabilitation of Prostitutes

In 1881, a Whitechapel Salvationist Elizabeth Cottrill began to take to her home at 1 Christmas Street women who had fallen into prostitution, or who were homeless, destitute and vulnerable. Her house soon became overcrowded and another house was rented in nearby Hanbury Street for the fallen women. Each woman who entered the Hanbury Street Shelter had to put a penny through a little hatchway to receive in return a mugful of hot, strong, well-sweetened tea, with a slice of bread spread with dripping. Women ate and drank, sewed, knitted, talked, and waited for the evening service in the big hall. They could wash their dirty clothes in the wash-house. For threepence, they could get supper, bed and breakfast. At nine they had to go to bed. Their bedsteads were wooden boxes, placed close side by side. Bedding consisted of seaweed and a large leather sheet with a strap round the neck to prevent its slipping off. The rule of the Shelter was: bed at nine, rise at six, and all out by eight. Attached to the woman's Shelter was a place for mothers and their babies.

In the mid 1880s, Bramwell Booth and his wife Florence Soper Booth, joined Josephine Butler, a social reformer and feminist, and the journalist Thomas Stead in their campaign against the white slave trade. Bramwell Booth, together with W.T. Stead, exposed trafficking of young girls for prostitution. In July 1885, the Pall Mall Gazette published a series of articles, &ldquoThe Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon, &rdquo which described how its editor, W. T. Stead, arranged for the purchase of thirteen-year old Eliza Armstrong for five pounds from her alcoholic mother, with the mother’s full consent that the girl would be put in a brothel. (Bartley 88) Although Stead's investigative journalism was controversial, the articles created a wide public outcry. Catherine and William Booth sent a petition to the House of Commons in support of the Criminal Law Amendment Act, which in the course of 17 days received 393,000 signatures. Ultimately, Parliament passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act in 1885, which raised the age of consent from 13 to 16. (Berwinkle 105)

In the same year, William Booth proposed in the Salvation Army weekly newspaper War Cry a &ldquoNew National Scheme for the Deliverance of Unprotected Girls and the Rescue of the Fallen.&rdquo &rdquo Bramwell and his wife established in London an office for women who were victims of sexual exploitation and formed volunteer Midnight Rescue Brigades to search for streetwalkers in &ldquoCellar, Gutter, and Garret,&rdquo offering them Army's homes of refuge.

Temperance

William and Catherine Booth were committed to temperance throughout all their lives. They castigated excessive drinking and prostitution as the root of all evil. In 1853, Catherine Booth heard the American temperance crusader, John Bartolomew Gough (1818-1886) at Exeter Hall in London. She was inspired by his arguments and devised a temperance campaign of house-to-house visitation, which she later implemented within the framework of the Salvation Army's social rescue work. By the 1880s Catherine Booth made the Salvation Army &ldquothe world's largest abstinence society.&rdquo (Mumford 30)

The Salvation Army ran several homes for &ldquoinebriates,&rdquo this term referred to people addicted to alcohol, morphine and laudanum. Hillsborough House Inebriates' Home located on Rookwood Road, London, accommodated female patients, who were first admitted free of charge, but in the late 1890s they were expected to contribute 10s. per week towards the cost of their maintenance. Patients usually stayed in the Home for twelve months, or for a shorter period. When the cure was completed, they were returned to their husbands if they were married, and some unmarried patients were sent out to positions, such as servants or nurses, on condition that the authorities of the Home gave them a satisfactory opinion.

Match Girls Strike

Many workers (mostly women), who were employed in the matchmaking industry suffered from necrosis, or &ldquo phossy-jaw,&rdquo which affected workers who dipped the sticks into the phosphorus paste. Young women, who were carrying boxes of poisonous matches on their heads, were bald by age 15. In 1891, the Booths started a campaign against Bryant and May's match factory in London. William Booth bought a derelict factory in Old Ford, London and fitted it with machinery and employed workers to manufacture safety matches. Booth’s match boxes carried the inscription: &ldquoLights in Darkest England. &rdquo Soon his competitors decided to produce safety matches, which did not cause necrosis.

Labour Emigration

In Darkest England William Booth conceived the idea of overseas colonies for English surplus labour. The earliest recorded emigration occurred as early as 1882, when the Salvation Army participated in recruitment of women emigrants for Australia. Then, in 1885, a regular series of notices appeared in the Army's magazines advertising emigration to Australia, South Africa, and Canada. The first emigration ship sailed with 1,000 people from Liverpool for Canada in 1905. By the summer of 1908, more than 36,000 migrants had travelled to the British Dominions under the auspices of the Army.

Funds

At the outset, the Booths established an independent Christian organisation with virtually no money and no property. In the mid 1860s they began their missionary work with financial help from nondenominational evangelical societies. (Murdoch 170) The Christian Mission received some funding from the Evangelization Society and a few dedicated private donors. In 1867, Booth set up a Council of ten prominent philanthropists to assist him in the work of the Mission and conceived a more effective fundrising plan. By the early autumn 1869, he had raised 1,300 pounds, with another 1,600 pounds promised, 2,900 pounds altogether. (Bennett 37) This money was spent on the purchase of the People's Market, which was converted to the People's Mission Hall in 1870.

In the same year Booth dissolved the Council and set up a Conference, which consisted of the Booths themselves and evangelists in charge of various Mission stations. The financial situation of Booth's organisation was still bad and debts were not cleared until 1872. In April 1870, The Christian Mission Magazine called for donations and voluntary offerings to keep the Mission going. The Soup Kitchens, run by the Mission between 1870 and 1874, which offered cheap meals to the poor, did not bring substantial revenue to cover the debts of the Mission.

In order to carry his social ministry William Booth was completely dependent on the funds donated by the general public and organisations. The first balance sheet of the Salvation Army for the year ended 30th September 1879 shows total receipts of 7,194 pounds, of which 4,723 pounds (59%) was received from &ldquooutside sources.&rdquo (Irvine 14) During the next decade receipts of the Salvation Army exceeded 18,750,000 pounds. This was due, amongst others, to a more effective fundraising under the control of Bramwell Booth.

In September 1886, when the first &ldquoSelf-Denying Week&rdquo was organised, the Salvation Army started a programme of a systematic small financial contributions as well as large donations, gifts and legacies. Additionally, William Booth decided that each corps must be responsible for raising their own funds. At the end of 1888, Booth requested the Home Secretary to provide funds for the Salvation Army in the annual amount of 15,000 pounds to improve the inhumane conditions of the &ldquo vast numbers of men and women&rdquo in East London slums. The request was rejected, but Booth managed to raise 102,559 pounds from individual philanthropists to start implementing this scheme. (Irvine 17) By the end of the Victorian era, the Salvation Army had been widely recognised as an important Christian social relief organisation and developed effective fundraising techniques which helped it extend its social work in Britain and overseas. All donations collected from individuals and the amount donated were publicised in the annual reports.

Oversea Activity

Confession of an Indian . [Click on image to enlarge it and to obtain more imformation.]

In 1880, the Salvation Army opened its missions in the United States, in the following year in Australia in 1882 in Canada in 1887 in Jamaica in 1898 in Barbados and in 1901 in Trinidad. By the end of the century, the Salvation Army established its posts in several European countries, India, South Africa, and South America. In the 1890s, the Salvation Army had some 45,00 officers in Britain and 10,000 worldwide.

Opposition and Recognition

The unconventional activity of the Salvation Army began to provoke opposition. Many denominations, including the om1.html Church, regarded William Booth's open-air evangelism with suspicion because it allowed women to preach. The politician Lord Shaftesbury condemned the activities of the Salvation Army and described William Booth as the &ldquoAntichrist. &rdquo (Gariepy 31) The magazine Punch called him &ldquoField Marshal Von Booth. &rdquo (Benge 164) Apart from that, the Army &ldquosoldiers&rdquo were initially often persecuted by authorities and mobs.

From the outset the activity of the Salvation Army stirred controversy and resentment in some circles. Critics described Booth's social schemes as totally utopian and impractical. They also put into question the honesty of the General and his family and accused him of authoritarianism. Thomas Huxley, natural scientist and agnostic, wrote twelve letters to The Times in which he tried to discourage people from giving Booth money for his scheme. He described Booth's venture as &ldquoautocratic socialism masked by its theological exterior. &rdquo (7) Charles Bradlaugh, a political activist and atheist, is said to have died muttering: &ldquoGeneral Booth's accounts, General Booth's accounts.&rdquo (Inglis 208)

Many people did not like the Salvation Army parades with loud singing and shouting. Brewers feared that the temperance actions would diminish alcohol consumption. Owners of drink stores organised gangs of thugs, who called themselves the Skeleton Army to disrupt the activities of the Salvation Army. They followed Salvationists' processions carrying skull and crossbones banners and dirty dishcloths on broom handles. Their intention was to mock the practices of The Salvation Army. Meetings were also disrupted by loud jeering, stone and rat throwing. The most violent disturbances against the Salvation Army occurred in 1882, when 56 buildings were attacked and 669 Salvationists were brutally assaulted in provincial towns such as Honiton, Frome, Salisbury and Chester. (Swift 186, 193) However, in spite of violence and persecution, some 500,000 people were on and off under the ministry of the Salvation Army in Britain in the last quarter of the 19th century.

However, the Salvation Army began to gain powerful supporters too. Winston Churchill, who was then the Undersecretary of State, agreed with Booth's social ideas. Cardinal Manning, the Head of the Catholic Church in Britain, wrote a letter to General Booth sympathising with him in his efforts to ameliorate the condition of the London poor. (The Mercury , Nov. 7, 1890 ) Charles Spurgeon, a Particular Baptist preacher, known as the 'Prince of Preachers', also expressed his support for the General. He wrote: &ldquoFive thousand extra policemen could not fill [the Salvation Army's] place in the repression of crime and disorder. &rdquo (Benge 165)

Gradually, the Salvation Army began to earn respect from both the lower and upper strata of society. Although Queen Victoria never gave her official patronage to the activities of the Salvation Army, she sent Catherine Booth the following message in 1882: &ldquoHer Majesty learns with much satisfaction that you have, with other members of your Society, been successful in your efforts to win many thousands to the ways of temperance, virtue, and religion. &rdquo (Walsh 185) Towards the end of the Victorian era the Salvation Army became widely recognised as the champion of the poor and destitute.

By the end of the Victorian Era the social work of the Salvation Army had become officially recognised. In 1902, Booth was invited to attend the coronation of King Edward VII, and in 1907 he received an honorary doctorate from Oxford University. A number of religious leaders expressed support to the social work of the Salvation Army, and Robert William Dale, a Congregationalist church leader, said that &ldquothe Salvation Army was a new instrument for social and moral reform. &rdquo (Inglis 205)

Järeldus

The Salvation Army grew from an obscure Christian Mission, established in East London in 1865, into an effective international organisation with numerous and varied social programmes. By the end of the Victorian era it had become one of the most successful Christian social relief organisations which was not only engaged in street preaching but also in a variety of social services for the poor, destitute and homeless. Its programmes, such as rescue homes for sexually-abused women and rehabilitation centres for alcoholics, drug addicts, juvenile delinquents, and ex-prisoners, anticipated similar welfare programmes in the twentieth century. Although the Salvation Army generally revealed conservative attitudes towards a liberal society, and its members often lived in self-imposed cultural isolation, it nevertheless supported first-wave Christian feminism by allowing women to preach and carry out social work. The spiritual and social ministry of the Salvation Army stirred the social conscience of many Victorians and contributed significantly to a number of welfare reforms in Britain and elsewhere.


Preaching the Gospel

All Salvationists accept a disciplined and compassionate life of high moral standards which includes abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. From its earliest days the Army has accorded women equal opportunities, every rank and service being open to them and from childhood the young are encouraged to love and serve God.Raised to evangelise, the Army spontaneously embarked on schemes for the social betterment of the poor. Such concerns have since developed, wherever the Army operates, in practical, skilled and cost-effective ways. Evolving social services meet endemic needs and specific crises worldwide. Modern facilities and highly-trained staff are employed.

Modern facilities and longer-term development is under continual review. Increasingly the Army’s policy and its indigenous membership allow it to cooperate with international relief agencies and governments alike.

The movement’s partnership with both private and public philanthropy will continue to bring comfort to the needy, while the proclamation of God’s redemptive love offers individuals and communities the opportunity to enjoy a better life on earth and a place in Christ’s everlasting Kingdom.


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