Kuidas Sparta kasutas karme treeninguid täiuslike sõdalaste tootmiseks

Kuidas Sparta kasutas karme treeninguid täiuslike sõdalaste tootmiseks

Tänu osaliselt 480 eKr toimunud lahingule Thermopylae, kus väike Sparta sõdurite vägi jäi maha, et võidelda surmani palju suurema Pärsia armee vastu, on Sparta sõdalased juba ammu kuulsad oma sõjalise võimekuse ja visaduse poolest. Isegi tänapäeval tekitab sõna “Spartan” kujutise suurepäraselt vormis osavast võitlejast, kes on valu ja hirmu suhtes ükskõikne.

„Teistes [Kreeka] linnriikides oli peeneid sõjavägesid,” selgitab Stetsoni ülikooli iidse ja keskaja ajaloo dotsent Kimberly D. Reiter. "Enamik tunnistas Spartat parimaks."

Kuidas said spartalased nii aukartustäratavaks? Üks tegur oli ajastu, Kreeka linnriigi haridus- ja koolitussüsteem, mis kasutas karme, äärmuslikke ja mõnikord julmi meetodeid, et valmistada poisid ette Sparta kodanikeks ja sõduriteks.

"Ajaloo eesmärk oli sisendada sõdurivoorusi: jõudu, vastupidavust, solidaarsust," kirjutas varalahkunud Kanada ajaloolane Mark Golden. Kuid see saavutas kõik selle suure hinnaga, muutes Sparta poiste lapsepõlve selliseks, mida tänapäeval peetaks traumaatiliseks kogemuseks.

Koolitus algas varases eas

Vana -Kreeka ajaloolase Plutarchose sõnul, kes kirjutas mitu sajandit pärast Sparta hiilgeaega 400ndatel eKr, hakkasid spartalased sõdureid arendama vahetult pärast sündi, kui Sparta vanemad hindasid isaseid imikuid. „Hästi ehitatud ja tugevatel” lastel lubati elada, samas kui neid, keda peeti ebatervislikeks või moondunud, jäeti mäe jalamile surema.

Seitsmeaastaselt andsid Sparta poisid vanemad üle riigile, kus nad organiseeriti ettevõteteks, kes elasid, õppisid ja treenisid koos.

"Poisist, kes oli silmapaistev ja kes oli võitluses kõige julgem, määrati ettevõtte kapten," kirjutas Plutarch. "Ülejäänud hoidsid tema pilku, kuuletusid tema käskudele ja allusid tema karistustele, nii et nende poisilik väljaõpe oli kuulekus."

Plutarchos kujutas Sparta poisse vähese kooliastmena. Kuid Ühendkuningriigi Nottinghami ülikooli iidse ajaloo emeriitprofessor Stephen Hodkinson ütleb, et teistes allikates on vihjeid, et nad said „standardse Kreeka alghariduse lugemise, kirjutamise, numbrite, laulu ja tantsu alal”.

Nende veelgi karmimaks muutmiseks olid spartalikud poisid sunnitud käima paljajalu ning harva pesema või kasutama salve, nii et nende nahk muutus kõvaks ja kuivaks, kirjutas Plutarchos. Rõivaste jaoks anti neile vaid üks mantel, mida aastaringselt kanda, et nad õpiksid kuumust ja külma taluma, ning tegid oma peenrad taimedest, mille nad pidid paljaste kätega jõekallastelt maast lahti kiskuma.

Plutarchose sõnul pidid noored spartalased kasvades oma keha ehitamiseks üha rohkem trenni tegema. Nagu Donald G. Kyle oma raamatus märgib Sport ja vaatemängud muistses maailmas, Sparta noored pidid end alasti korrapäraselt kontrollima ja poisid, kes ei tundunud piisavalt vormis, piitsutati.

Spartani poisid pidasid julmad võistlused vastu

Lisaks jalajooksudele ja maadlustele kuulusid nende spordialade hulka eriti jõhkrad võistlused, kus kaks meeskonda üritasid üksteist saarelt minema ajada, lükates, lüües, hammustades ja kiusates oma vastaseid, vastavalt Kyle'i raamatule.

Et elu veelgi karmim oleks, spartalikke poisse toideti kasinaga. Xenophon, filosoof ja ajaloolane, kes elas 400ndate lõpust kuni 300ndate aastate eKr. Keskpaigani, märkis, et üks eesmärk oli neid saledaks hoida, mis Sparta süsteemi rajaja Lycurgus uskus, et nad kasvavad pikemaks. Kuid poiste nälja eesmärk oli julgustada neid varastama toitu aedadest ja muudest kohtadest, "et muuta poisid leidlikumaks varude hankimisel ja paremini võitlevateks meesteks," kirjutas Xenophon. Kuid selleks, et nad õpiksid kavalust, piitsutati varastamisega vahele jäänud poisse.

Selline karm karistus oli Sparta koolitussüsteemi silmapaistev osa. Spartalased muutsid selle isegi iga -aastaseks rituaaliks, mille käigus poisid üritasid templi altarilt juustu varastada, mis nõudis piitsaga relvastatud valvuritest kõrvalehoidmist.

"Piitsutamine oli julguse ja stoilisuse proovikivi," ütleb Reiter. "Poisid ootasid avalikult oma julgust."

The Agoge oli „katsumus“, nagu kirjutas Cambridge'i ülikooli kreeka kultuuri emeriitprofessor Paul Cartledge oma 2003. aasta raamatus Sparta peegeldused. Kuid see oli oluline samm selle poole, et meid valitaks ühte jamasse, ühiskondlikesse söögikohtadesse ning saadaks täieõiguslikuks Sparta kodanikuks ja sõduriks.

VAATA: Sparta kättemaks ajaloohoidlas

Kas spartalased olid paremad võitlejad?

VAATA: Spartalased: surma tööriistad

Rangelt võttes ,. Agoge ei sisaldanud sõjalist väljaõpet, mis algas tõsiselt alles siis, kui neist said täiskasvanud sõdurid. Selle tegelik fookus oli valmistada Sparta isaseid ühiskonna nõuetele vastavateks liikmeteks, kes olid valmis ohverdama kõik Sparta heaks. Erinevalt teistest Kreeka linnriikidest oli Sparta "sotsiaalpoliitilise stabiilsuse poolest erakordne", ütleb Hodkinson. "Selle põhjuseks oli osaliselt see, et poiste kasvatus oli sisendanud harmooniat ja koostööd soodustavat käitumist."

Kuid spartalaste koolituse rõhutamine sobivusele aitas Sparta sõdureid lahinguväljal. "See muutis nad karmimaks/tugevamaks, suutlikumaks taluma raske päikese puust kilbi kaalu suvepäikese käes, paremini tõukama ja lükkama, paremini vastupidavust," ütleb Cartledge.

Spartalaste tegelik saladus ei olnud füüsiline vorm ega ükskõiksus valu ja kannatuste suhtes, vaid pigem kõrgem organisatsioon. Sparta väed puurisid järeleandmatult, kuni suutsid taktikat täiuslikult täita. "See oli ilmselt nende taktikaliste manöövrite väljaõpe, mis andis Sparta sõduritele tõepoolest lahinguväljal eelise," kirjutab J. F. Lazenby oma raamatus. Sparta armee.

"Xenophon ütleb, et Sparta armee võiks oma väljaõppe tõttu teha manöövreid, mida teised ei saaks," ütleb Cartledge.

Plutarchi sõnul jätkasid spartalased regulaarset sõjalist väljaõpet kogu oma täiskasvanuea jooksul. "Ükski mees ei saanud elada nii, nagu talle meeldis, kuid nende linnas, nagu sõjaväelaagris, oli neil alati ettenähtud režiim," kirjutas ta. Nagu Cartledge kirjutab Sparta peegeldusedAlles 60 -aastaselt lubati spartalastel lõpuks sõjaväest pensionile jääda - eeldusel, et nad elavad nii kaua.

LOE LISAKS: 8 põhjust, miks ei olnud lihtne olla spartlane

Sparta polnud võitmatu

Stabiilsus, mida ajastu soodustas ka „teatud paindumatust,” ütleb Hodkinson. Spartalaste kogu tõhususe huvides tuginesid nad tugevalt piiratud hulgale manöövritele ja kui need ebaõnnestusid, polnud neil plaani B.

Väljaspool lahinguvälja muutis Sparta haridussüsteemi kehtestatud status quo jäik aktsepteerimine spartalastel raskeks tegeleda oma ühiskonna sotsiaalsete probleemidega, nagu ebavõrdsus maaomandis ja rahvaarvu vähenemine.

"Lõpuks tekitas see omamoodi kontseptuaalse luku, kui spartalased ei suutnud ette kujutada muud elu," selgitab Reiter. "See tegi spartalastel väga raskeks omaks võtta uuendusi sõjas või poliitikas."

Selles mõttes aitas režiim, mis aitas spartalased nii karmiks muuta, kaasa aidata ka Sparta lõplikule allakäigule. Aastal 371 eKr võitis rivaalitsev linnriik Teeba Leuctra lahingus Sparta, kasutades ebaharilikke, loomingulisi ratsaväe manöövreid, millele spartalased olid liiga paindumatud. See lõpetas Sparta sõjalise domineerimise, kuigi nende hirmutav maine elas läbi ajaloo.


Kuidas Sparta kasutas karme treeninguid täiuslike sõdalaste tootmiseks - AJALUGU

Ateena hariduse esmane eesmärk oli toota mõtlejaid, kunsti ja teaduste alal hästi koolitatud inimesi, rahu või sõjaks valmistunud inimesi. Noori Ateena poisse juhendati kodus kuue- või seitsmenda eluaastani ning seejärel saadeti nad kuni 14 -aastaseks saamiseni naabruskoolidesse alghariduse saamiseks. Need koolid olid tavaliselt erakoolid, kuid õppemaksud olid piisavalt madalad, et isegi enamik vaeseid ateenlasi saaks endale lubada oma poiste kooli saatmist vähemalt mõneks aastaks. (3)

Põhikooli ajal õppisid nooremad poisid kalisteeniat ja neile õpetati sageli pallimänge, vanematele poistele aga rohkem sõjalist tüüpi tegevusi, nagu jooksmine, poks ja maadlus. Kõigilt Ateena poistelt oodati aga kõvasti lugemist, kuna kirjandusel oli nende hariduses väga oluline osa. Rahvuslikud eepilised luuletused Homerose Illiaad ja Odüsseia olid kohustuslikud õpetused kõikides Ateena algkoolides. Samuti õpetati poistele liiri mängimist, laulmist ja aritmeetikat. Ateena hariduse põhirõhk oli valmistada ette mitmekülgseid kodanikke, kes oleksid võimelised täitma kõiki ülesandeid, mida neilt paluti. (1)

14 -aastaselt lõpetasid vaesemad poisid tavaliselt koolis käimise ja alustasid õpipoisiõpinguid. Poisid sellistest peredest, kes seda endale lubasid, jätkasid koolis veel neli aastat. 18 -aastaselt, sõltumata sotsiaalsest staatusest, kohustati kõiki Ateena poisse kaks aastat sõjakoolis käima, misjärel nad said vabalt oma elu elada oma äranägemise järgi. Kuni 390 eKr oli alaline kõrghariduskool alles siis, kui sellised õpetajad nagu Aristoteles hakkasid asutama kõrgkoolide akadeemiat. (3)


Sparta sõdalaste selts

Sparta sõdalase elu
Kas te kujutate ette, et teid võeti seitsmeaastaselt perelt ja kodult ära? Ja siis veedate ülejäänud elu võitlema õppides ja seejärel võitlete oma riigi vaenlastega?

V sajandil eKr oli see Sparta poisi elu. See oli Sparta seadus, et poistest peavad saama sõdalased. Ja mitte ainult head sõdalased, vaid nad pidid olema maailma parimad! Mis oli Sparta ja kus see oli?

Vana-Kreeka, või kreeka keeles Hellas, jagunes paljudeks osariikideks ja linnriikideks. Linnriik või kreeka keeles polis oli tegelikult lihtsalt sellise võimuga linn, mis kontrollis kogu osariiki, kus see asus. Näiteks Sparta oli Lakonia osariigi linnriik, kuid kuna Sparta oli oma osariigis nii suurriik, oli tavaline kasutada linna nime kogu piirkonnale viitamiseks.

Sel ajal elas Spartas 100 000 kodanikku ja orja. Kuna see asus Peloponnesose poolsaare keskel (Kreeka lõuna pool), teadsid spartalased, et kõik lahingud tuleb pidada maismaal. Nende linnriik vajab lahinguväljal asjatundlikke sõdalasi. Miks oli Spartal vaja nii tugevaid sõdalasi?

Sparta asus mägisel, kivisel maastikul, mis ei sobinud põlluharimiseks. Samuti asus see merest liiga kaugel, et saaks seda vett kalapüügiks või kaubanduseks kasutada. Ellujäämiseks pidi Sparta kontrollima teisi Hellase osi ning kasutama nende maad ja juurdepääsu veele. Nad pidid olema kõige tugevamad ja kartmatumad võitlejad, et võita lahingud oma naabrite vastu ja saada Hellase võimsaimaks jõuks.

Mõned ütlevad, et Sparta keskendus nii võimsa sõjaväe omamisele 9. sajandil kuninga nimega Lycurgus. Kuningas Lycurgus lõi palju seadusi, mille eesmärk oli aidata Sparta inimestel jääda üksteisega rahumeelseks, kuid kasvada väljaspool linnriiki väga tugevaks ja võimsaks. Kui Lycurgus otsustas võtta.


Sisu

Mükeene vanus Muuda

Esimene viide sõdivatele spartalastele on Ilias, kus nad esinesid teiste Kreeka kontingentide seas. Nagu ülejäänud Mükeene ajastu armeed, kujutati seda koosseisus peamiselt jalaväest, mis oli varustatud lühikeste mõõkade, odade ja Dipylon-tüüpi kilpidega ("8" -kujulised lihtsad ümarad pronkskilbid). See periood oli sõjapidamise kuldaeg.

Lahingus prooviks iga vastase armee võidelda parema (tugeva või sügava) poole teise joonega ja seejärel pöörata vasakule, mistõttu nad saaksid rünnata haavatavat külge. Kui see juhtus, põhjustab see reeglina armee suunamist. Põgenev vaenlane pandi mõõga alla ainult nii kaugele, kui lahinguväli ulatus. Selle ühe lahingu tulemus määrab konkreetse probleemi tulemuse. Sõja kuldajastul löödud armeed ei tapetud, nad põgenesid tagasi oma linna ja tunnistasid võitjate paremust. Alles pärast Peloponnesose sõda pidasid lahingud kreeklaste seas valimatut tapmist, orjastamist ja röövimist. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Eliit kasutas sõjavankreid, kuid erinevalt Lähis -Ida kolleegidest näib, et neid on kasutatud transpordiks - sõdalane astus jalaga võitlemiseks maha ja asus seejärel lahingust taganema. Mõnel kontol on aga näidatud, et sõdalased viskavad oda vankrist enne mahatulekut. [5]

Arhailine ajastu ja avardumine Muuda

Nagu suur osa Kreekast, oli ka Mükeene Sparta haaratud Doriuse sissetungidesse, mis lõpetasid Mükeene tsivilisatsiooni ja juhatasid sisse nn "Kreeka pimeda keskaja". Selle aja jooksul oli Sparta (või Lacedaemon) pelgalt dooria küla küla Eurotase jõe kaldal Laconias. Kuid 8. sajandi alguses eKr muutus Sparta ühiskond. Hilisemad traditsioonid omistasid reformid Lycurguse võimalikule müütilisele kujule, kes lõi uusi institutsioone ja kehtestas Sparta riigi sõjalise olemuse. [6] See "Lycurguse põhiseadus" jäi praktiliselt muutumatuks viis sajandit. [6] Alates c. 750 eKr alustas Sparta pidevat laienemist, alistades esmalt Amyclae ja teised lakoonilised asulad. Hiljem, esimese Messenia sõja ajal, vallutasid nad viljaka riigi Messenia. 7. sajandi alguseks eKr oli Sparta koos Argosega Peloponnesose domineeriv jõud.

Sparta hegemoonia kehtestamine Peloponnesose redigeerimiseks

Paratamatult põrkasid need kaks jõudu kokku. Esialgsed Argive'i õnnestumised, näiteks võit Hysiae lahingus aastal 669 eKr, viisid messenlaste ülestõusuni. See sisemine konflikt sidus Sparta armee peaaegu 20 aastaks. [7] Kuuenda sajandi jooksul kindlustas Sparta siiski oma kontrolli Peloponnesose poolsaare üle. Spartalased sundisid Arkaadiat oma võimu tunnustama. Argos kaotas umbes 546. aastal Künuria (Peloponnesose lõunarannik) ja kannatas veelgi. löök Cleomenes I käest Sepeia lahingus aastal 494. Korduvad ekspeditsioonid türanniliste režiimide vastu kogu Kreekas tõstsid samuti oluliselt spartalaste prestiiži. [8] 5. sajandi alguseks oli Sparta Lõuna -Kreekas vaieldamatu meister kui juhtriik (hegemoon) vastloodud Peloponnesose Liiga (mis oli kaasaegsetele iseloomulikumalt tuntud kui "Lacedaemonians ja nende liitlased"). [9]

Pärsia ja Peloponnesose sõjad Muuda

6. sajandi lõpul eKr tunnistati Sparta silmapaistvamaks kreeklaseks polis. Lüüdia kuningas Croesus sõlmis liidu spartalastega [10] ja hiljem palusid Kreeka Väike -Aasia linnad Joonia mässu ajal neilt abi. [10] Pärsia teise sissetungi ajal Kreekasse, Xerxese juhtimisel, määrati Spartale Kreeka vägede üldjuhtimine nii maismaal kui ka merel. Spartalased mängisid sissetungi tõrjumisel otsustavat rolli, eriti Thermopylae ja Plataea lahingutes. Kuid pärast tagajärgi tõmbusid spartalased suhteliselt isoleerituks, kuna Pausanias oli pärslastega vandenõusid kavandanud ja nad ei soovinud kodust liiga kaugele kampaaniat teha. Võimuvaakum tõi kaasa Ateena võimuletuleku, kes sai juhtpositsiooniks pärslaste vastu suunatud jätkuvates pingutustes. Seda isolatsionistlikku tendentsi tugevdasid veelgi mõned tema liitlaste mässud ja suur maavärin aastal 464, millele järgnes Messeniani helottide ulatuslik mäss. [8]

Ateena paralleelne tõus märkimisväärseks riigiks Kreekas tõi kaasa hõõrdumise tema vahel Spartaga ja kahe ulatusliku konflikti (esimene ja teine ​​Peloponnesose sõda), mis laastasid Kreeka. Sparta sai nende sõdade ajal mitu kaotust, sealhulgas esmakordselt terve Sparta üksuse alistumise Sphacteria's 425 eKr. Sellegipoolest osutus see lõpuks võitjaks, peamiselt pärslastelt saadud abi kaudu. Oma admiral Lysanderi juhtimisel vallutas Pärsia rahastatud Peloponnesose laevastik Ateena liidulinnad ning otsustav merevõit Aegospotamis sundis Ateenat kapituleeruma. [8] Ateena lüüasaamine seadis Sparta ja selle sõjaväed Kreekas valitsevale positsioonile.

Hegemoonia lõpp Redigeerimine

Spartalaste tõus ei kestnud kaua. 5. sajandi eKr lõpuks oli Sparta Peloponnesose sõdades tõsiseid kaotusi saanud ning selle konservatiivne ja kitsas mentaliteet võõrandas paljusid endisi liitlasi. Samal ajal oli selle sõjaväeklass - Spartiate kast - languses mitmel põhjusel:

  • Esiteks vähenes rahvaarv Sparta sagedaste sõdade tõttu 5. sajandi lõpus. Kuna Kaaslased pidid hilja abielluma, jäi ka sündimus madalaks, mistõttu oli raske korvata nende kaotusi lahingutest.
  • Teiseks võiks alandada Eraldage staatust mitmel põhjusel, näiteks argus lahingus või võimetus tasuda kahtlus. Maksmata jätmine muutus üha tõsisemaks probleemiks, sest Spartas oli hakanud arenema äritegevus. Kaubandus oli aga muutunud kontrollimatuks, mis viis Spartas täieliku kaubanduskeeluni, mille tulemuseks oli vähem sissetulekuid. Järelikult mõned Kaaslased pidid maha müüma maa, millest nad elatist teenisid. Kuna põhiseadus ei sätestanud edutamist Eraldage kast, numbrid järk -järgult vähenesid.

Kui Sparta sõjaline jõud kahanes, vaidlustas ka Teeba selle autoriteedi korduvalt. Järgnenud Korintose sõda tõi kaasa alandava Antalcidase rahu, mis hävitas Sparta maine Kreeka linnriikide iseseisvuse kaitsjana. Samal ajal sai Sparta sõjaväeline prestiiž tugeva löögi, kui a mora 600 mehest sai lüüa peltastest (kergejalaväest) Ateena kindrali Iphicratese juhtimisel. Sparta autoriteet lagunes lõpuks pärast nende katastroofilist lüüasaamist Leuctra lahingus tebalaste poolt Epaminondase juhtimisel 371. aastal eKr. Lahingus hukkus suur hulk inimesi Kaaslasedja selle tulemuseks oli viljaka Messenia piirkonna kadumine.

Sotsiaalne struktuur Muuda

". Lacedaemonianide liitlased olid Agesilause peale solvunud, sest. nad ise [pakkusid] nii palju [sõdureid] ja lacedaemonlasi, keda nad järgisid, nii vähe. Agesilaus, kes soovis oma argumenti numbritega ümber lükata. liitlased, et nad istuksid kergekäeliselt maha, Lacedaemonians eraldi. Siis kutsus tema kuulutaja pottsepad kõigepealt üles ja pärast neid sepad, järgmisena puusepad ja ehitajad jne. käsitöö. Vastuseks tõusid peaaegu kõik liitlased üles, kuid mitte ükski Lacedaemonians'i mees, sest neil oli keelatud käsitsikunsti õppida või praktiseerida. Siis ütles Agesilaus naerdes: "Näete, mehed, kui palju rohkem sõdureid kui teie saadame välja. ""
Plutarchos, Agesilause elu, 26

Spartalased ("Lacedaemonians") jagasid end kolme klassi:

  • Täiskodanikud, tuntud kui Kaaslased korralik või Hómoioi ("võrdsed" või eakaaslased), kes said maad (kláros või klēros, "partii") ajateenistuse eest.
  • Perioeci ("lähedal asuvad elanikud"), kes olid vabad mittekodanikud. Nad olid üldiselt kaupmehed, käsitöölised ja meremehed ning teenisid kergejalaväelastena ja abitöödena kampaaniates. [9]
  • Kolmas ja arvukaim klass oli Helots, riigile kuulunud pärisorjad orjastasid Spartiidi talumajapidamist klēros. 5. sajandiks eKr oli helotsidkasutati ka sõjaväeosades kergväelastena. [1]

The Kaaslased olid Sparta armee tuumik: nad osalesid assambleel (Apella) ja pakkus armees hopliite. Tõepoolest, nad pidid olema sõdurid ja mitte midagi muud, neil oli keelatud õppida ja tegeleda mis tahes muu ametiga. [1] Suurel määral, et hoida palju rohkem helotsid vaoshoitud, nõuaks see Sparta ühiskonna pidevat sõja alust. [11] Üks hilisema Sparta ühiskonna suurimaid probleeme oli oma täieõiguslike kodanike pidev vähenemine, mis tähendas ka olemasoleva sõjalise tööjõu vähenemist: Kaaslased vähenes 6000 -lt 640 eKr 1000 -le 330 eKr. [12] Seetõttu pidid spartalased kasutama helotsid hopliitidena ja aeg -ajalt vabastasid nad mõned lakoonilised helotid neodamōdeis ("äsjaõiguslik") ja andis neile sõjaväeteenistuse eest asumiseks maad. [13]

The Eraldage elanikkond jagati vanuserühmadesse. Nad pidasid kõige nooremaid, neid, kes olid 20 -aastased, oma kogemuste puudumise tõttu nõrgemaks. Nad kutsuksid ainult vanimaid mehi, kes olid kuni 60 -aastased või kriisi ajal, neid, kes olid 65 -aastased, kaitsma pagasirongi hädaolukorras.

Taktikaline ülesehitus Muuda

Sparta armee organisatsiooni peamine allikas on Sparta enda austaja Xenophon. Tema Sparta põhiseadus pakub üksikasjalikku ülevaadet Sparta riigist ja ühiskonnast 4. sajandi alguses eKr. Teised autorid, eriti Thukydides, annavad samuti teavet, kuid need ei ole alati nii usaldusväärsed kui Xenophoni esmased kontod. [14]

Varasemast organisatsioonist on vähe teada ja palju on jäetud spekuleerimiseks. Tundub, et varaseim ühiskondliku ja sõjalise organisatsiooni vorm (7. sajandil eKr) oli seatud kolme hõimu järgi (phylai: Pamphyloi, Hylleis ja Dymanes), kes ilmusid Teises Messeni sõjas (685–668 eKr). Järgmine alajaotus oli "vennaskond" (phratra), millest 27 ehk üheksa hõimu kohta on registreeritud. [15] Lõpuks asendati see süsteem viie territoriaalse jaotusega obai ("külad"), mis varustas a lochos igaüks umbes 1000 meest. [16] Seda süsteemi kasutati veel Pärsia sõdade ajal, kuna Herodotos oli viitanud "lochoi"tema oma Ajalugu. [17]

Pärsia ja Peloponnesose sõja vahel toimunud muutusi ei dokumenteeritud. Ometi oli Thukydidese sõnul Mantineas 418 eKr seitse lochoi kohal, igaüks jagatud neljaks pentekostyes 128 mehest, kes jagati veel neljaks enōmotiai 32 mehest, mis andis kokku 3584 meest Sparta peaarmee jaoks. [18] Peloponnesose sõja lõpuks oli armee struktuur edasi arenenud, et lahendada tööjõupuudus ja luua paindlikum süsteem, mis võimaldas spartalastel saata väiksemaid salke kampaaniatele või garnisonidesse väljaspool oma kodumaad. [19] Xenophoni andmetel jäi Sparta põhiüksuseks enōmotia, 36 mehega kolmes kaheteistkümnes failis an enōmotarches. [20] Kaks enōmotiai moodustas a pentēkostys 72 mehest alla a pentēkontēr, ja kaks pentēkostyai rühmitati a lochos 144 mehest alla a lochagos. Neli lochoi moodustas a mora 576 mehest alla a polemarchos, Sparta armee suurim üksik taktikaline üksus. [21] Kuus morai koosseisus oli Sparta armee, millele lisati Skiritai ja liitriikide kontingendid.

Kuningad ja hippeis Muuda

Need kaks kuningat juhtisid lahingutes tavaliselt kogu armeed. Esialgu alustasid mõlemad kampaaniat samal ajal, kuid pärast 6. sajandit eKr tegi seda vaid üks, teine ​​jäi Spartasse. [6] Erinevalt teistest polis, nende autoriteeti piirati tõsiselt, tegelik võim jäi viiele valitud isikule ephoroi. [1] Valitud 300 -liikmeline rühm kuninglikeks valvuriteks, keda nimetatakse hippeis ("ratsaväelased"), saatis kuningaid. Vaatamata oma tiitlile olid nad jalaväe hopliidid nagu kõik Spartiatai. Tõepoolest, spartalased kasutasid oma ratsaväge alles Peloponnesose sõja lõpus. Selleks ajaks olid kummagi külge kinnitatud väikesed üksused 60 ratsaväelasest mora. [21] hippeis kuulus esimesse mora ja olid Sparta armee eliit, kes olid paigutatud lahingujoone auväärsele paremale küljele. Neid valisid igal aastal spetsiaalselt volitatud ametnikud hippagretai, koostatud kogenud meestelt, kellel olid juba pärijad pojad. See pidi tagama, et nende rida saaks jätkata. [17]

"Ὦ ξεῖν", ἀγγέλλειν Λακεδαιμονίοις ὅτι τῇδε
κείμεθα, τοῖς κείνων ῥήμασι πειθόμενοι. "
"Mine ütle spartalastele, kes sa möödad, et siin,
nende seadustele kuuletudes me valetame. "
Simonose of Ceos, epitaaf Thermopylae juures langenud spartalaste hauaküngal [22]

Algul arhailisel perioodil 700–600 eKr oli mõlema soo haridus, nagu enamikus Kreeka osariikides, keskendunud kunstidele, kusjuures meessoost kodanikud said hiljem sõjalise hariduse. Alates 6. sajandist muutus aga riigi sõjaline iseloom üha selgemaks ja haridus allutati täielikult sõjaväe vajadustele. [23]

Nii poisse kui ka tüdrukuid kasvatasid linnanaised kuni seitsmenda eluaastani, mil poisid (payia) võeti emadelt ja rühmitati "pakenditesse" (agelai) ja saadeti peaaegu samaväärsesse praeguse sõjaväelaagriga. See sõjalaager oli tuntud kui Agoge. Nad said raskustesse, kuna neid varustati vähese toidu ja riietega ning see julgustas neid ka varastama ning kui nad tabati, karistati - mitte varastamise, vaid tabamise eest. [11] On iseloomulik lugu, mida jutustas Plutarchos: "Poisid tegelevad oma varastamisega nii tõsiselt, et üks neist, nagu lugu räägib, kandis oma mantli all noort rebast, kelle ta oli varastanud, laskis loomal hammaste ja küünistega soolestiku välja rebida ning suri, mitte ei avastanud tema vargust. " [24] Poisse julgustati üksteisega mängudes võistlema ja mõnitama kaklusi ning edendama esprit de corps. Lisaks õpetati neid lugema ja kirjutama ning nad õppisid Tyrtaiose laule, mis tähistasid Spartani tegusid Teises Meenia sõjas. Nad õppisid lugema ja kirjutama mitte kultuurilistel põhjustel, vaid seetõttu said nad lugeda sõjaväe kaarte. [25] Kaheteistkümneaastaselt klassifitseeriti poiss "nooruseks" (meirakioon). Tema kehalist kasvatust tugevdati, distsipliin muutus palju karmimaks ja poisid olid koormatud lisaülesannetega. Noored pidid käima paljajalu ning olid suvel ja talvel riietatud ainult tuunikasse. [11]

Täisealiseks sai 18 -aastaselt ja noor täiskasvanu (eiren) oli algselt poiste treener. Samal ajal kaasati lootustandvamad noored Krypteia. Kui nad elaksid kaks aastat maal, saaksid neist täielikud sõdurid. 20 -aastaselt said spartalased ajateenistusse kõlblikud ja ühinesid ühe jamaga (kahtlus), kuhu kuulus 15 eri vanuses meest. [26] Need, kes tagasi lükati, säilitasid vähem kodakondsuse, kuna ainult sõdurid kuulusid nende hulka homoioi. Kuid ka pärast seda ja isegi abielu ajal ning umbes 30. eluaastani veedavad nad suurema osa oma päevast koos oma üksusega kasarmus. Sõjaväeteenistus kestis kuni 60. aastani, kuid on registreeritud juhtumeid, kus vanemad inimesed osalesid kriisi ajal kampaaniates. [15]

Kogu täiskasvanuea jooksul on Kaaslased allus jätkuvalt nii rangele väljaõpperežiimile, et, nagu ütleb Plutarchos, ". nad olid ainsad mehed maailmas, kellega sõda tõi sõjaõppusele hingetõmbe". [27] Vaprus oli spartalaste ülim voorus: Sparta emad kinkisid oma poegadele kilbi sõnadega "[Tagasi] Kaasas või [kaasas]!" (Ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς), [28] see tähendab, kas võidukas või surnud, sest lahingus oleks raske hopliidist kilp esimene asi, mida põgeneval sõduril oleks kiusatus hüljata. ripsaspia, "kilbi langetamine", oli põllul deserteerimise sünonüüm. [29]

Taktika redigeerimine

Sarnaselt teiste Kreeka linnriikide armeedega oli ka Sparta armee jalaväepõhine armee, kes võitles falanksi moodustise abil. Spartalased ise ei teinud aastal olulisi muudatusi ega taktikalisi uuendusi hoplite sõjapidamine, kuid nende pidev õppus ja suurepärane distsipliin muutsid nende falanksi palju sidusamaks ja tõhusamaks. Spartalased kasutasid falanki klassikalises stiilis ühes reas, ühtlaselt sügaval 8–12 -liikmelistes failides. Kui nad võitlevad koos oma liitlastega, hõivavad spartalased tavaliselt ausa parempoolse ääre. Kui spartalased saavutaksid võidu oma poolel, nagu tavaliselt juhtus, sõitsid nad siis vasakule rattaga ja rullisid kokku vaenlase. [30]

Peloponnesose sõja ajal muutusid lahingutegevused sujuvamaks, kergejõude hakati üha enam kasutama ja nende vastu võitlemiseks arenes välja taktika. Kahe vastandliku falanksi vahelises vastasseisus olid aga olulised vastupidavus ja "tõukamisvõime". [31] Alles siis, kui teeblased suurendasid Epaminondase juhtimisel Leuctra lahingus oma moodustise osa sügavust, põhjustas Sparta falanksi moodustumise purunemise.

Marsil Muuda

Xenophoni sõnul mobiliseeriksid efoorid kõigepealt armee. Pärast mitmeid usulisi tseremooniaid ja ohverdusi kogunes armee ja asus teele. [32] [33] Armeemenetlust juhtis kuningas koos skiritai ja ratsaväeüksused, kes tegutsevad eelvalvurina ja skautlusparteidena. [34] Vajalikud varud (oder, juust, sibul ja soolatud liha) kanti koos sõjaväega ning iga spartlasega oli kaasas helot -teenija. [35] Igaüks mora marssisid ja telkisid eraldi koos oma pagasirongiga. [36] Armee ohverdas igal hommikul ja enne lahingut kuninga ja ohvitseride poolt, kui märgid ei olnud soodsad, võib vaga juht keelduda marssimisest või vaenlasega suhtlemisest. [37]

Spartalased kasutasid sama tüüpilist hoplite varustusena nende teiste Kreeka naabrite ainsaks eripäraks olid spartalased karmiinpunane tuunika (chitōn) ja mantel (himatsioon), [38] samuti pikad juuksed, mida spartalased säilitasid palju hiljem kui enamik kreeklasi. Spartalaste jaoks säilitasid pikad juuksed oma vanema arhailise tähenduse kui vaba mehe sümboli teistele kreeklastele, 5. sajandiks oli soengu omapärane seos spartalastega tähistanud Sparta-meelset sümpaatiat. [39]

Klassikaline periood Redigeeri

Kiri lambda (Λ), mis tähistab Laconia või Lacedaemoni, mis oli maalitud spartalaste kilpidele, võeti esmakordselt kasutusele 420ndatel eKr ja sai kiiresti laialt tuntud Sparta sümboliks. [40] Sõjaväelased andsid oma kilbid edasi igale põlvkonnale perekonna pärandina. Sparta kilpide tehniline areng ja disain arenesid löögi- ja kilpseinte taktikast. Neil oli Sparta armees nii suur tähtsus, et kuigi mõõga ja oda kaotamine oli erand, siis kilbi kaotamine oli häbi märk. Kilp mitte ainult ei kaitsnud kasutajat, vaid kaitses ka kogu falanksi moodustist. Ilma kilbita koju tulla oli desertööri märk ripsaspiavõi "kilbi maha laskmine" oli põllul deserteerimise sünonüüm. Emad, kes jätsid oma poegadega hüvasti, julgustaksid neid kilpidega tagasi tulema, jättes sageli hüvasti, näiteks "Poeg, kas selle või selle peal" (Ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς). This saying implied that they should return only in victory, a controlled retreat, or dead, with their body carried on the shield. [41] [42]

Spartan hoplites were often depicted bearing a transverse horsehair crest on their helmet, which was possibly used to identify officers. [43] During the Archaic period, Spartans were armored with flanged bronze cuirasses, leg greaves, and a helmet, often of the Corinthian type. It is often disputed which torso armor the Spartans wore during the Persian Wars. However, it seems likely they either continued to wear bronze cuirasses of a more sculptured type or instead had adopted the linothōrax. During the later 5 th century BC, when warfare had become more flexible, and full-scale phalanx confrontations became rarer, the Greeks abandoned most forms of body armor. The Lacedaemonians also adopted a new tunic, the exōmis, which could be arranged to leave the right arm and shoulder uncovered and free for action in combats. [44]

The Spartan's main weapon was the dory spear. For long-range attacks, they carried a javelin. The Spartiates were also always armed with a xiphos as a secondary weapon. Among most Greek warriors, this weapon had an iron blade of about 60 centimetres however, the Spartan version was typically only 30–45 centimetres. The Spartans' shorter weapon proved deadly in the crush caused by colliding phalanxes formations – it was capable of being thrust through gaps in the enemy's shield wall and armor, where there was no room for longer weapons. The groin and throat were among the favorite targets. In one account, an Athenian asked a Spartan why his sword was so short, and after a brief pause, he replied, "It's long enough to reach your heart." In another, a Spartan complained to his mother that the sword was short, to which she simply told him to step closer to the enemy. As an alternative to the xiphos, some Spartans selected the kopis as their secondary weapon. Erinevalt xiphos, which is a thrusting weapon, the kopis was a hacking weapon in the form of a thick, curved iron sword. In Athenian art, Spartan hoplites were often depicted using a kopis instead of the xiphos, nagu kopis was seen as a quintessential "bad guys" weapon in the Greeks' eyes. [45] The Spartans retained the traditional hoplite phalanx until the reforms of Cleomenes III when they were re-equipped with the Macedonian sarissa and trained in the phalanx style.

Spartans trained in pankration, a famous martial art in Ancient Greece that consisted of boxing and grappling. Spartans were so adept in pankration that they were mostly forbidden to compete when it was inducted in the Olympic Games. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Hellenistic period Edit

During the Hellenistic period, Spartan equipment evolved drastically. Since the early 3 rd century BC, the pilos helmet had become almost standard within the Spartan army, being in use by the Spartans until the end of the Classical era. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Also, after the "Iphicratean reforms," peltasts became a much more common sight on the Greek battlefield, and themselves became more heavily armed. In response to Iphicrates' victory over Sparta in 392 BC, Spartan hoplites started abandoning body armour. Eventually, they wore almost no armour apart from a shield, leg greaves, bracelets, helmet and a robe. Spartans did start to readopt armour in later periods, but on a much lesser scale than during the Archaic period. Finally, during 227 BC, Cleomenes' reforms introduced updated equipment to Sparta, including the Macedonian sarissa (pike). However, pike-men armed with the sarissa never outnumbered troops equipped in the hoplite stiil. It was also at that time Sparta adopted its own cavalry and archers.

Spartan philosophy Edit

Contrary to popular belief, Spartans valued knowledge and education more than the Athenians did. [46] Spartan philosophers include Lycurgus and Chilon of Sparta. Although Athens has been praised as the "inventor" of democracy and philosophy, Sparta often has been viewed in popular culture as a society characterized by brutal, mindless discipline and merciless emphasis on physical fitness. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Sparta, however, had its own democratic government. In the Appella or Demos, as early as 700 BC, Spartans elected leaders and voted by range voting and shouting. Every male aged 30 and above could participate. Aristotle called the Spartan electoral process "childish" in contrast to the stone ballots cast by the Athenians. Sparta adopted its procedure for simplicity and prevented any biased voting, bribing, or cheating that was predominant in the early democratic elections. [47]

Spartan education Edit

The Spartan public education system, the ajastu, trained the mind as well as the body. Spartans were not only literate but admired for their intellectual culture and poetry. Socrates said the "most ancient and fertile homes of philosophy among the Greeks are Crete and Sparta, where are found more sophists than anywhere on earth." [48] The state provided public education for girls and boys, and consequently, the literacy rate was higher in Sparta than in other Greek city-states. [49] In education, the Spartans gave sports the most emphasis. [49]

Self-discipline, not kadavergehorsam (mindless obedience), was the goal of Spartan education. Sparta placed the values of liberty, equality, and fraternity at the center of their ethical system. These values applied to every full Spartan citizen, immigrant, merchant, and even to the helots, but not the dishonored. Helots are unique in the history of slavery in that, unlike traditional slaves, they were allowed to keep and gain wealth. For example, they could keep half of their agricultural produce and presumably could also accumulate wealth by selling them. There are known to have been occasions that a helot with enough money could purchase their freedom from the state. [50]

Spartan code of honor Edit

The Spartan hoplite followed a strict laconic code of honor. No soldier was considered superior to another. [49] Suicidal recklessness, berserkery, and rage were prohibited in the Spartan army, as those behaviours endangered the phalanx. Recklessness could also lead to dishonor, as in the case of Aristodemus. [51] Spartans regarded those who fight, while still wishing to live, as more valorous than those who don't care if they die. [51] They believed that a warrior must not fight with raging anger but with calm determination. [52] Spartans must walk without any noise and speak only with few words by the laconic way of life. [49] Other ways for Spartans to be dishonored include dropping the shield (rhipsaspia), failing to complete the training, and deserting in battles. Dishonored Spartans were labelled as outcasts and would be forced to wear different clothing for public humiliation. [49] In battles, the Spartans told stories of valor to inspire the troops and, before a major confrontation, they sang soft songs to calm the nerves. [53]

Throughout their history, the Spartans were a land-based force par excellence. During the Persian Wars, they contributed a small navy of 20 triremes and provided the overall fleet commander. Nevertheless, they largely relied on their allies, primarily the Corinthians, for naval power. This fact meant that, when the Peloponnesian War broke out, the Spartans were supreme on land, but the Athenians excelled at sea. The Spartans repeatedly ravaged Attica, but the Athenians who were kept supplied by sea, were able to stage raids of their own around the Peloponnese with their navy. Eventually, it was the creation of a navy that enabled Sparta to overcome Athens. With Persian gold, Lysander, appointed navarch in 407 BC, was able to master a strong navy and successfully challenged and destroyed Athenian predominance in the Aegean Sea. [8] However, the Spartan engagement with the sea would be short-lived, and did not survive the turmoils of the Corinthian War. In the Battle of Cnidus of 394 BC, the Spartan navy was decisively defeated by a joint Athenian-Persian fleet, marking the end of Sparta's brief naval supremacy. The final blow would be given 20 years later, at the Battle of Naxos in 376 BC. The Spartans periodically maintained a small fleet after that, but its effectiveness was limited. The last revival of the Spartan naval power was under Nabis, who created a fleet to control the Laconian coastline with aid from his Cretan allies.

The fleet was commanded by navarchs, who were appointed for a strictly one-year term, and apparently could not be reappointed. The admirals were subordinated to the vice-admiral, called epistoleus. This position was seemingly independent of the one-year term clause because it was used in 405 BC to give Lysander command of the fleet after he was already an admiral for a year. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]


How Sparta Used Harsh Training to Produce 'Perfect' Warriors - HISTORY

The primary purpose of Spartan education, and indeed of Spartan society as a whole, differed greatly from that of the Athenians. The primary goal of Spartan education was to produce good soldiers. Training for the military began at age 7, as all Spartan boys left home to go to military school. From then until the time they were 18, they were subject to harsh training and discipline. Historical accounts tell of Spartan boys as being allowed no shoes, very few clothes, and being taught to take pride in enduring pain and hardship. (1)

Throughout their adolescent and teenage years, Spartan boys were required to become proficient in all manner of military activities. They were taught boxing, swimming, wrestling, javelin-throwing, and discus-throwing. They were trained to harden themselves to the elements. At the age of 18, Spartan boys had to go out into the world and steal their food. Getting caught would result in harsh punishment, including flogging, which was usually a practice reserved only for slaves. The concept was that a soldier must learn stealth and cunning.

At age 20, Spartan men had to pass a series of demanding tests of physical prowess and leadership abilities. Those that passed became members of the Spartan military, and lived in barracks with the other soldiers. They were allowed to take a wife, but they weren't allowed to live with her. At age 30, they became full citizens of Sparta, provided they had served honorably. They were required to continue serving the military, however, until age 60.

Unlike their Athenian counterparts, Spartan girls also went to school at age seven. There they learned gymnastics, wrestling, and did calisthenics. These schools were similar in many ways to the schools Spartan boys attended, as it was the Spartan opinion that strong women produced strong babies, which would then grow into strong soldiers to serve the state. (1)

Somewhat ironically, women in Sparta had much more independence than women in other city-states, partially because their husbands never lived at home, and partially because Spartans had tremendous respect for Spartan mothers.

While no marvelous works of art or literature ever came of this system, it did accomplish the Spartan goal of producing elite soldiers. The Spartan military was universally disliked, but they were also universally respected.


6 reasons to fear the knife-hand

Posted On April 02, 2018 09:37:34

The “knife-hand” is the multi-tool gesture of the military. Actually, you can think of it as a Swiss army knife – pun intended.

The knife-hand is used in a plethora of ways ranging from administrative to instructional and even to gauge anger, according to Terminal Lance creator Maximilian Uriarte. “Never, anywhere in the Marine Corps, have I ever seen the knife-hand so flagrantly used. I always took note, however, that the higher the knife-hand is on the drill instructor, the more pissed off he is.”

Image courtesy of Terminal Lance

Perhaps the reason the knife-hand commands so much attention is because they’re deadly, according to Duffel Blog. Here are six videos showing knife-hand devastation:

1. A Marine demonstrates the knife hand knockout on his curious buddy.

2. Another Marine nearly hits the deck after a knife hand attack.

3. This guy takes two hits but is still able to walk.

4. It’s a good way to stop friends’ annoying shenanigans (if you know what you’re doing).

5. This nice couple practices their knife hands in front of their kids.

NOW: 23 photos of drill instructors terrifying the Hell out of Marine recruits

OR: Marine veteran chokes the hell out of a guy trying to rob a gas station

Artiklid

9 Boys Lived In Military Barracks From Age Seven

Mothers didn&rsquot get to take care of their children for long. As soon as a boy turned seven, he was considered ready for education, known as the agoge, and he left his parents for the care of a teacher called a &ldquowarden.&rdquo

Life in the agoge wasn&rsquot easy. The children would be actively encouraged to haze and provoke each other and even to challenge each other to fights. This wasn&rsquot a school where teacher maintained the peace if two kids were bickering, the warden would goad them into resolving it with their fists.

The warden also carried a whip at all times, and if a boy misbehaved, he would use it to beat him. The beating would be hard, but that wouldn&rsquot be the end of it. If the child&rsquos father found out he was beaten, then he was obliged to beat his child a second time. Anything less was considered spoiling the child.


Dark Times in Ancient Greece
This was the Bronze Age, the time of Homers epic Iliad and a time when champions on the battlefield were heroes. They fought in full body armor, with figure eight shields for protection. They attacked with spears, swords and bows (which the Spartans considered cowardly) and used basic tactics like the mass charge. Routed armies were often massacred. Classical Greece proved to be a cauldron of military development and infantry tactics. The rugged terrain isolated groups and made the use of chariots and cavalry very difficult. This combined with frequent, massive invasions from the Balkans created an early arms race. In this super heated environment infantry tactics geared up very quickly, driven by the continuous warfare.

Ancient Spartan Warfare
The ancient Greeks found protection in natural citadels, or poleis, where they could defend themselves from raiding neighbors and pirates. Soon leaders of the each polis organized efforts to defend their crops and pastures and formed the political bases of the Greek city states. During the 6th and 7th century the Greeks reached their population limits and in an extraordinary event sent their surplus population abroad. The Greeks soon had colonies stretching from the North of the Black Sea to Spain. Each polis or several working together sponsored independent colonies, which intern became a trading and cultural extension of the original polis. These Greek colonies where generally welcomed by the indigenous populations and the trade in turn created wealth and a new middle class in Greek society back home.

In Peloponnesia excavations at Pylos and Nichoria have revealed for Messenia's late Bronze Age (1300s BC) a bureaucratic, agricultural kingdom ruled by the wanax at Pylos. The Messenians spoke Mycenaean Greek, and worshipped the Greek gods at local shrines. Later, Greeks believed a body of Dorians under Cresphontes invaded the country from the Northern Greece or Macedonia, establishing control over Peloponnesia. However, given that the Arcadian language is a direct and conservative descendent of Mycenaean Greek, it is more likely that the Dorians pushed the native Messenians into Arcadia if the invasion happened at all. The Dorians then merged with the previous inhabitants producing an the Messenian and Spartan tribes, groups that developed a strong national feeling. However, the relative wealth of Messenia in fertile soil and favourable climate attracted the expansionistic neighbouring Spartans. War broke out, it was said, as a result of the murder of the Spartan king Teleclus by the Messenians - which, in spite of the heroism of King Euphaes and his successor Aristodemus ended in the subjection of Messenia to Sparta (c. 720 BC). The numericaly inferior Spartans, realizing that they probably wouldn’t be as lucky the next time they fought the Messenians decided on a very rare course of action in the Greek world and set out to obtain complete military and social supremacy over their defeated neighbors. Two generations later the Messenians revolted and under the leadership of Aristomenes kept the Spartans at bay for some seventeen years (648 BC� BC). However, the stronghold of Ira (Eira) fell after a siege of eleven years and the Messenians where placed back under the heal of Sparta.

Bury and Meiggs, "A History of Greece," 4th Ed quotes. "As the object of the Spartans was to increase the number of lots of land for their citizens, many of the conquered Messenians (those who did not manage to leave the area) were reduced to the condition of Helots. Servitude was hard, though their plight might have been harder, for they paid to their lords only one-half of the produce of the lands which they tilled."

The Spartan poet Tyrtaeus describes how the Messenians endured the insolence of the masters:
"As asses worn by loads intolerable,
So Them did stress of cruel force compel,
Of all the fruits the well-tilled land affords,
The moiety to bear to their proud lords."

During the 7th century Lelantine War, a long war between the Greek trading powers Eretria and Chalcis and their allies, distracted the Greeks, Sparta made a power grab. The Spartans vowed to conquer their neighbors, Messenia, no matter how long and how many set backs they suffered. Messenia, a group of eight polis that had never quite united, had rich soil and that attracted the Spartans. The Spartan attack came as a surprise however it took two more decades to win the war. The numericaly inferior Spartans, realizing that they probably wouldn’t be as lucky the next time they fought the Messenians decided on a very rare course of action in the Greek world and set out to obtain complete military and social supremacy over their defeated neighbors.Two generations later the Messenians revolted, it took the Spartans took 17 years to bring them back under control, including an eleven year siege on the stronghold of Ira.

The next revolt didn’t breakout until 464 BC, but fear of Messenian uprisings would linger in the Spartans national memory for the rest of its existence. The Spartans called those who hadn’t fled helots and forced them into grueling servitude. However, the Spartans realizing that they were outnumbered four to one, and that the Helots would kill them at the first chance they got, fearful of the Messenians uprising the Spartans created a unique society among the Greeks. They used the helots as laborers and farmers to free the Spartan men for professional military service. Spartan life then became more militarized then any other city state, while the other Greeks became citizen/farmers and warriors the Spartan men all became professional warriors. In fact it was the only job available to a Spartan man. This freed them to launch military champions during any season while the other Greeks had to tend to their fields.

The society of the Spartans was considered strange to the other Greeks. They became obsessed with military power, focusing on exercise, discipline and their ability to endure any hardship. Around Greece they gained, and promoted, this reputation as a tough, unyielding and hardened society. When some diplomats visited from Athens they were given a black gruel for their meal, although this wasn’t standard Spartan fair, the Athenians returned home with tales about the Spartan’s disgusting food and obsession with warfare.

After their subjugation of Messenia the Spartans went to war against Argos, where they were taught a lesson. A Spartan army was defeated by a phalanx this formation of spearmen was a major advancement over the free for all tactics previously used. The Greek world took notice and soon the new middle class formed a warrior class based on phalanx heavy infantry tactics. These hoplites (named after their large shields or hoplons) became both a major political and military force throughout Greece. They employed basically the same tactics as the Argos but Spartan weapons were tweaked for efficiency in close order combat.

In a phalanx formation hoplites formed shieldwalls by overlapping their large shields, the left of each shield protecting the warrior to the left. Only the shins and head of the hoplite wear exposed, and these were well protected by grieves and helmets. The spears of the first three ranks of a phalanx formation could be used offensively. Although the phalanx was not a Spartan innovation they became the best hoplites in Greece through constant drilling. Individual Spartan warriors were highly disciplined and frequently exercised to increase their stamina, an important attribute when phalanxes clashed. (For more details on phalanx formations and tactics see Ancient Weapons: Spears or Greek Warriors - Hoplites and Phalanxes section).

Spartan Military Culture
From this environment was born the Spartan war machine, the era's pinnacle of heavy infantry tactics. The Spartans gained eternal military fame for their stand against the Persians at the battle of Thermopylae when 300 Spartan hoplites held off an entire Persian army and inflicted severe damage to it before succumbing to the vast Persian forces and dying to a man.

The Spartan armies dominated Greece after their victory in the exhausting Peloponnesian Wars (460 to 404 BC). Both their individual warriors and group tactics where honed to a perfection never before seen on the battlefield. The lifestyle of these ancient warriors has even become a word in the English language meaning sternly disciplined and rigorously simple, frugal, or austere. Spartan also means brave and undaunted.

Spartan Warriors: Birth and Training
The selection of Spartan warriors started before their birth. The Spartans encouraged athletic completion and the victors where held in high esteem. They married the strongest boys with the strongest girls and the fastest boys with the fastest girls in order to bread the best warriors. Infamously, the Spartan elders would inspect new born infants and any found to be imperfect, judged to be puny or deformed, were thrown from a cliff. The cliff was a chasm on Mount Taygetos known euphemistically as “The Deposits".

The training of Spartan warriors started when they were boys. They were sent to a military boarding school, or agoge, at age seven where they formed a class with other boys their age. Their education emphasized physical, mental and spiritual toughness and could be quite brutal. They where taught to endure hardship and pitted against each other in fights by their instructors. Adolescents were used to terrorize the Helots, and in a particularly nasty tradition called a Krypteia they were sent out at night with the goal of killing any helot precieved to be a threat or unlucky enough to be discovered out alone. Each fall the Spartans would declare war on the Helot making it legal to kill any Helot.

Spartan Military Duty & Hoplites
At age twenty the men of Sparta moved into the barracks and became full time soldiers. Even if they married, which they were expected to due, they lived in the barracks. Military service lasted until the age of forty, duty in the reserves lasted from forty to sixty years of age. In desperate time’s men as old as sixty-five could be called up to protect supplies.

Sparta was known for being the only Greek city without a city wall, a famous saying among Spartans went something like, “Our men are our walls.”

Spartan Armor
A hoplite typically had a bronze, muscled breastplate, a helmet with cheek plates, as well as greaves and other shin armor. They carried a bowl-shaped wood and bronze shield called an aspis or hoplon, and when worn a dispus. It was very heavy and protected the warrior from chin to knee. In Spartan military culture, throwing away a soldiers hoplon during a retreat like other routed hoplites was not acceptable. "Come home with this shield or upon it" was a there motto. Meanings, if you can’t come home victorious, then come home dead. Most Greek hoplites had family symbols on their shield, as the expensive equipment was often inherited from ones parents. In contrast, the Spartans (starting in 420 BC) had the same uniform instead of customized armor and the Greek letter lambda on their shield, referring to their homeland Lacedaemonia. They also wore a scarlet cape to represent them as Spartans, though the cape was never worn in combat.

Spartan Weapons
Their primary weapon was a spear around 7-9 feet (2.7 meters) in length called a doru. The doru had a leaf shaped spearhead on the business end and a spike on the other. The spike, called a “lizard killer” could be used to stand the spear up by planting it in the ground or it can be used to finish off fallen enemies that the formation is moving over. Additionaly, if the spearhead broke off the spear could then be spun around and the spike used in its place.

Spartan warriors also carried a short sword, the xiphos, to be used as a secondary weapon and in the crush of battle when only a short weapon could be used effectively. The blade of a xiphos was typically about 2 feet (50-60 cm) long. The blade was shaped like a long leaf and could be used for slashing however they were usually used for stabbing. The Spartans used an even shorter xiphos than the other Greeks, the blade measuring only 1-1½ feet (30-40cm) long making it even easier to use in tight places. The xiphos could be used to stab at the unprotected groin, armpit or throat of an enemy.

Another secondary weapon available was the kopis, a short sword with a heavy curved blade that could be used for hacking away at enemies. Although it had a point that could be used for stabbing the weapon was designed to be used almost like a hatchet. The results of the use of this weapon were gruesome, giving it a reputation as a “bad guys” weapon. In the art of Sparta’s arch rival, Athens, Spartan warriors are often depicted using the kopis. (See Spartan Weapons for more details.)

Spartan Military Decline:
After the Pelopensian War Spartan military dominance was challenged by Thebes, with the Aid of Athens, Corinth and Argos in the Corinthian War (395-387 BC ). Although Sparta was able to achieve a number of land victories but was weekend by raiding on its Coast and provoking the helots to revolt. However after a short truce the war again flared up in an all out battle for supremacy. The Spartans were defeated in the Battle of Lauctra by the great general and strategist Epaminondas of Thebes. His tactic of using and echelon formation with the leading side loaded up with his best troops and in very deep formation allowed him to break the unbreakable, the Spartan hoplite line crumbled.

The Spartans had lost up to 4000 hoplites and the helots revolted, a one two punch they would never recover from as Spartan citizenship was dependant on blood lines and their was no way to quickly regain manpower in their rigid society. The Spartan military had entered its long slow decline, eventualy their once cutting edge ancient weapons and tactics were even eclipsed. Nonetheless, Sparta was able to continue as a regional power for another two centuries. Neither Philip II nor his son Alexander the Great attempted to conquer Sparta itself respecting Spartan martial skill and not wanting to risk potentially high losses. It was reported that as late as 378 AD, following the disastrous defeat of the Roman imperial army at the Battle of Adrianople that a Spartan militia organized a phalanx and defeated a force of raiding Goths in battle.

Sparta’s Military Legacy
Spartan warriors have been inspired many throughout history. Admiration for the Spartans even has a name, Laconophilia. Their actions at the Battle of Thermopylae in particular have a place in the modern culture and it is perhaps the most famous last stand in history. The story about how 300 Spartans (and 700 Thespiae, who are often neglected) defended the pass at Thermopylae for 3 days against what against a massive Persian army (2 million according to Herodotus, although probably around 70,000 – 300,000 by modern estimations) has been told countless times. Modern interpretations of the Spartans have typically whitewashed some of their more brutal intuitions and portrayed them as the saviors of Western culture. This honorific, if applied to them along with the other Greek States, is not entirely undeserved though as Greek culture would become the bases for Western culture. A Persian victory over the Greeks would certainly have extinguished this light, along with ideas such as democracy, philosophy and science.



Here are the 13 funniest memes for the week of September 14th

Posted On February 05, 2020 19:01:22

In a move that almost seems suspiciously logical, Secretary of the Army, Mark Esper, has declared safety briefs no longer mandatory. That means no more long, drawn-out discussions led by the first sergeant about oddly specific incidents. No more sh*tbag “leaders” talking down to warfighters about crimes that they themselves committed. No more checking the box by reminding troops to not drink and drive, beat your spouse, or beat your kids in a monotone, apathetic voice that diminishes the gravity of those serious crimes.

Soldiers are about to get told that this weekend to “be safe” and then to fall out. Some units may try out this thing called, “assuming adults are responsible for their own actions” while others will be stuck in their old ways, discussing a few safety issues out of sheer habit.

For the love of all that is awesome in the Army – do not f*ck this up, troops. If even a single private gets a speeding ticket this weekend, the chain of command will put that incident on a pedestal in order to keep safety briefs. If a single douchebag gets arrested for a DUI and jokes that they weren’t told not to this week, that one asshat will Blue Falcon the entire United States Army.

So, enjoy some memes if it means you’re not out trying to appear on the blotter.

(Meme via US Army WTF Moments)

(Meme via Smokepit Fairytales)

(Meme via The Salty Soldier)

(Meme via Decelerate Your Life)

(Meme via Decelerate Your Life)

(Meme via Disgruntled Vets)

Lisateave teemal We are the Mighty

MIGHTY CULTURE

But movies and television shows aside, the Spartan warriors were the best of the best. There is a reason why Sparta was one of the most powerful cities in Ancient Greece, and it all came down to their army. They were feared around the ancient world. And in their home city, there were no walls, as Spartans believed their warriors are strong enough to defeat every wall. Sparta was the only city in Ancient Greece that Alexander the Great never conquered.

Boys in Sparta were not raised by their parents. Instead, the state took care of boys, and made sure they get the proper training. The ultimate honor in Sparta was to die on the battlefield. If a person dies from old age or another reason, he was not given a tombstone. So, what made Spartan warriors so incredible? Let’s take a look at their training and selection to find out.

Death for weak children

Some ancient records state that half of the babies in Sparta died. Not all babies were given a fair chance for living. Weak children were given no chance. More often than not, weak children were born, and if there was any sign of illness or deformity, the boy was left to die on its own, or even killed.


The process for deciding whether a baby is worth the training started from the moment the baby was born. The father would then carry the baby to the elders, and they had to examine it. The elders tried hard to find any deformities, weaknesses and anything else that would doom the baby. If the elders found any sign of weakness, the father of the baby had to carry the baby to a pit where it was left to starve to death.

The next step of inspection continued in the baby’s home. If the elders gave the baby a pass, the father returned home with the baby, and the mother then washed the baby in wine. This was considered an early epilepsy test, as no child with epilepsy would be left to live and fight.

After the baby passed all the tests, the child was given a free plot of land. And if he survived, he would then continue his training in the Spartan army.

Stealing for food

Mothers took care of their babies for only seven years. Once a boy turns seven, the Spartan army welcomed him. The education starts in an institution known as “agoge”, where a teacher is assigned to take care of the children.

But life was not easy. The children were experiencing tests on every move. Even though they were young, they were encouraged to provoke and challenge each other. The ultimate goal was for the children to fight among themselves. Peace was not something the warden (teacher) wanted. Every opportunity that the warden got, he resolved with a fight.

To top it all, the children received almost no clothing or food to begin with. Shoes were not allowed, so children had to train barefoot. The only clothing the boys received was a thin, single cloak. Because food could make them fat and ineffective on the battle field, boys were given the bare minimum, just so they can survive. However, they weren’t forbidden to get more food. If someone wanted more food, he was encouraged to steal food.

Of course, that applied as long as the boy is not caught. If caught, the trainee was punished with beating.

Training for the brain, as well as for the body

Spartans were soldiers first and foremost. There was no other profession for male Spartans than being a soldier. Spartans were never merchant, farmers, or anything else. They were soldiers. However, for Spartan soldiers to be brave, they needed training for the brain, as well as for their body. They were taught to fight. However, if necessary, they were also taught to read.

The training for the brain was also part of the education system in the “agoge”. Every night, after dinner, one of the under masters would sit down with the boys. His responsibility was to ask questions, and boys were expected to support an answer with a reason. If the answer was not clever and prompt, the boys were punished. One of the punishments for weak answers was biting of the fingers. The master was also graded. After the questions session, the under master was reviewed by the masters. If he was too kind, the masters beat him.

An annual whipping festival

With so much beating, you would think boys would love a festival where they can enjoy. Instead, they got a whipping festival. The once in a year festival was called “Diamastigosis”. During the festival, boys were taken in front of a crowd, and beaten until they couldn’t stand.

For average people, the beating was considered a torture. However, Spartans considered it a great honor, as they fearlessly volunteered for whipping. The longer a person could stand, the braver and worthy he was seen.


In time, Sparta even set up a theater for visitors to watch. Spartans used it as a way to get some money and profit from their festival, as tickets were not exactly cheap.

Killing as sport

For Spartans, killing was part of their culture. The boys were getting ready for battle by beating up slaves. Sometimes, they even killed the slaves, just for sport. The slaves came from Palestine, and they were called “helots”.

Spartans regularly killed helots for practice. But the practice had another purpose. That was to show helots where they belong and their sport in society.


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